十七世紀母親的教誨書冊 Seventeenth-Century Mother’s Advice Books

主題 Topic 十七世紀母親的教誨書冊
Seventeenth-Century Mother’s Advice Books
代表作品 Title“Before the Birth of One of Her Children” by Anne Bradstreet
作者 AuthorMartha Urban
出版社 PublisherPalgrave
出版年 Year2006
語言 LanguageEnglish
裝訂 Binding□  平裝 Paperback    ■ 精裝 Hardcover
頁數 Pages205
(10 / 13)
Bibliography Reference (STC, Duff, GW . . .)
Web Link
撰寫日期 Date11, 2017

A.   簡介 Introduction (within 500 words, Chinese or English) 

十七世紀是素人發聲的時代,在女性的著作中值得注意的主題是女性地位和女性角色相關的書信和小冊。這些作品顯示出日常生活中女性的喜怒哀樂、回憶和期望,其中以母親手札(mother’s manuel)自成一個小文類。舉例來說,Elizabeth Grymeston (c. 1563- c. 1603,author of Miscelanea. Meditations. Memoratives) (1604),她的娘家親戚不乏顯貴人士如耶穌會會士Robert Southwell。Southwell是當時最重要的殉道者之一,Elizabeth的父親也因此受到牽連。Elizabeth生了九名子女,只有Bernye成年。在‘To her loving sonne Bernye Grymeston’, 她告訴孩子世界上沒有任何一種愛的力量比母親對親生孩子的愛來的更強大:
My dearest sonne, there is nothing so strong as the force of love; there is no love so forcible as the love of an affectionate mother to hir naturall childe: there is no mother can either more affectionately shew hir nature, or more naturally manifest hir affection, than in advising hir children out of hir owne experience, to eschue evill, and encline them to do that which is good. (A3r)
Dorothy Leigh (d. in or before 1616)作品中最有名的作品是Mother’s Blessing. 她叮嚀孩子們要能聰明地選擇婚姻的對象,如果婚姻的對象不好,主要是因為男性沒有盡到他的權利,去了解對方。至於婚後該從一而終。如果婚姻是導致於自己的失誤或不察,那就該小心地對待自己的失誤,避免人的邪惡與自私的行為。另一個例子是Anne Bradstreet,她的父親是Thomas  Dudley旗下的一名軍人,母親曾受良好教育,Anne耳濡目染,留下不少作品。1630年,Anne的父親帶著家人到現在的麻省定居,所著 “Before the Birth of One of Her Children”反映出現代前期女性孕育孩子的辛苦。因為醫藥不發達,現代前期的女性分娩時死亡(maternal mortality)的比例為百分之五至百分之七。對於分娩次數高達數次或十幾次的女性而言,分娩死亡的比例甚高,人母的Anne對丈夫的期許和對孩子的囑咐也就不足為奇了。從現代前期的母親手札,不僅能夠探索婦女物質與精神的世界,還可以藉由文字印證社會與法律範圍內的婚姻和兩性關係。

                           [Original CFP]
In studying the work of the medieval Scottish makars, the consideration of the relationship between Scotland and England is a crucial part of establishing a distinctly Scottish expression of nationhood.
Though there is much to discuss regarding the tensions that arise between these two countries in particular, this panel aims to explore the notion of difference within the British Isles on a broader scale, encouraging the study of resistance to the English literary hegemony, as articulated by voices of other bordering nations.
In addressing this critical lacuna, submissions would be encouraged to include, but not be limited to Welsh, Irish, Breton, Manx and further Celtic expressions of identity in the medieval period. Drawing together notions of nationhood, self-determination and common cultural heritage through opposition, this panel would allow critical focus to pull away from the notion of a specifically English medieval era and towards a sense of community between distinctive surrounding nations.

B.   延伸閱讀 Extended Reading

1.Performing Pedagogy in Early Modern England: Gender, Instruction, and Performance by Kathryn M. Moncrief (Routledge, 2011)
goo.gl/MS5D89content_copyCopy short URL
2.“Before the Birth of One of Her Children Related Poem”
All things within this fading world hath end,  
Adversity doth still our joyes attend;
No ties so strong, no friends so dear and sweet,  
But with death’s parting blow is sure to meet.  
The sentence past is most irrevocable,  
A common thing, yet oh inevitable.
How soon, my Dear, death may my steps attend,  
How soon’t may be thy Lot to lose thy friend,  
We are both ignorant, yet love bids me  
These farewell lines to recommend to thee,  
That when that knot’s untied that made us one,  
I may seem thine, who in effect am none.  
And if I see not half my dayes that’s due,
What nature would, God grant to yours and you;  
The many faults that well you know I have  
Let be interr’d in my oblivious grave;  
If any worth or virtue were in me,  
Let that live freshly in thy memory  
And when thou feel’st no grief, as I no harms,  
Yet love thy dead, who long lay in thine arms.
And when thy loss shall be repaid with gains  
Look to my little babes, my dear remains.  
And if thou love thyself, or loved’st me,
These o protect from step Dames injury.
And if chance to thine eyes shall bring this verse,
With some sad sighs honour my absent Herse;  
And kiss this paper for thy loves dear sake,
Who with salt tears this last Farewel did take.