Renaissance Satire

主題 Topic Renaissance Satire
代表作品 TitleRenaissance Satire
Hybrids: Culture and Genre in Early Modern England
作者 AuthorSchmidt, Gary A.
出版社 PublisherRoutledge
出版年 Year2013
語言 Language
裝訂 Binding□  平裝 Paperback    ■ 精裝 Hardcover
頁數 Pages
(10 / 13)
Bibliography Reference (STC, Duff, GW . . .)
Web Link
撰寫日期 Date10/14/2016

A.   簡介 Introduction (within 500 words, Chinese or English) 

英國文藝復興時期的研究者對這個時期的散文體的諷刺文類應該並不陌生。Ejner J. Jensen認為,古典時期的文化和文藝復興當代的文化產生衝擊,也順勢產生了新形態的諷刺文學。從John Skelton到Andrew Marvell (,幽默和諷刺結合了人文精神帶來的思潮,將人類的行為與心理以批判式的角度大幅度的檢視,例如: 出生於現金今荷蘭和比利時著名思想家和神學家的Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam (1467?–1536)就寫了《愚人頌歌》(1511),不僅諷刺世態人性,而且批判宗教權威和貴族腐敗的現象。法國弗朗索瓦·拉伯雷(François Rabelais)所寫的《巨人傳》(Pantagruel)更以誇張的敘事手法,藉由巨人家族中舊式的教育制度諷刺當時食古不化的文化氛圍。Gary A. Schmidt認為英國諷刺文學的發展是因為多元文化的融合所產生的Hybrid現象。書中所舉的例子包括不列顛和央格魯文化的衝突、古典文化和現世文化的落差和文藝復興時期所產生的社會層級移動的現象。換言之,intellectual voyager 是文藝復興時代新興的群體,他們因為文化跨界, 宗教的衝突或壓迫,產生了不同的視野和批判的角度,所謂的合理性或合法性,得以重新檢視。

Claude Julien Rawson所著Satire and Sentiment, 1660-1830 是另一部探討諷刺文學的經典,Rawson強調諷刺文學的敘事手法,例如:hyperbolic fantastication,verbal egotism、Grotesque elements 和self-display。
Peter J. Smith所著Between two Stools: Scatology and its Representations in English literature, Chaucer to Swift 於2015年出版,並以末世論的題目探討文藝復興時期的文化現象。Peter J. Smith的例子從喬叟的Miller’s Tale開始,並且認為末世主題和突破宗教束縛的荒誕主題反轉了封建社會既定的社會常規,這種反轉成就了諷刺文學的濫觴。至於Terry Heath 則強化了諷刺文手法見於文藝復興時期Pastoral Poetry (Drama)的現象。大致來說,Heath的分析有幾個層次:Pastoral setting提供了文化反差的平台、變裝打扮有助於諷刺傳統禮教和社會制約。有關諷刺文類在文藝復興時期呈現的議題很多,可參考以下專書。

B.   延伸閱讀 Extended Reading

1.At Zero Point: Discourse, Culture, and Satire in Restoration England by Rose A. Zimbardo. UP of Kentucky, 1998. (
Table of Contents
1)From Words to Experimental Philosophy
2)The Semiotics of Restoration Deconstructive Satire
3)No “I”, No “Eye”
4)Genders and Sexualities and Discourse at Restoration Zero Point
5)The Discursively Central “I”and the Telescope of Discourse

2. “Restoration Satire” by Kate Siago
Posted in 1987
The greater share of the seventeenth century satires are in prose and
follow the broader definition of a satire as "biting wit, irony, or sarcasm
used to expose vice or folly". These prose satires have no particular style.
They can be mock wills, funeral sermons, or aiiegories veiling their point in
a story, or even a vindication which ridicules rather than praises. TheSe
satires often have a bitter and violent edge to them since they are generally
designed as attacks on specific individuals. For this reason, they are often
difficult to understand since they assume the reader is acquainted with
contemporary events and people. Some, like The Sick Popes Last Will and
Testament, can be appreciated with little knowledge of the period, while
others aimed at Titus Oates or Roger L:Estrange require some knowledge of
the events of the time in order for them to be appreciated.
Satire in ail of its various forms played a major role in England during
this period. In addition, it influenced the English satirists of the next
century, men such as Swift and Pope.