主題 Topic 植物與現代前期文學研究
代表作品 Title(1) Plants and Empire: Colonial Bioprospecting in the Atlantic World
(2) Colonial Botany: Science, Commerce, and Politics in the Early Modern World
作者 Author(1) Londa Schiebinger
(2) Londa Schiebinger
出版社 Publisher(1) Harvard UP
(2) University of Pennsylvania Press
出版年 Year(1) 2007
(2) 2007
語言 LanguageEnglish
裝訂 Binding□平裝 Paperback    □ 精裝 Hardcover
頁數 Pages(1) 320
(2) 352
(10 / 13)
(1) 0674025687 / 978-0674025684
(2) 0812220099 / 978-0812220094
Bibliography Reference (STC, Duff, GW . . .)
Web Link
撰寫日期 DateJuly 2014

A.   簡介 Introduction (within 500 words, Chinese or English) 

科學這個議題融入文學研究已不是新奇的事,但在2004年和2007年,分別由Londa Schiebinger and Claudia Swan所編專書Plants and Empire以及Clonial Botany: Commerce, and Politics in Early Modern World 在出版的時候,就引起了許多關注。兩位編者的思維立基是現代早期至十九世紀初,因殖民和商業發展的關係,知識與好奇心的驅使,引發許多層面的關注,其中植物學方面的知識遂與政治與經濟發展產生相互影響,Clonial Botany一書討論的大主題包括Colonial governance and botanical practices、Translating Indigenous, Creole, and European Botanies: Local Konwledge(s), Global Science、Cash Crops: Making and Remaking Nature、Technologies of Accumulation 等四部份。根據編者的分析,殖民經濟體系展現出許多生活週邊的影響,而植物、植物園和植物學就成為殖民體系的一環。這位任教於史丹佛大學的教授Londa Schiebinger認為,她的研究主要強調稀有植物和歐洲的跨洋征服和貿易相關,因為,生物分佈圖可以探知歐洲在中南美洲的殖民地和歐洲文化的淵源。
對英美文學學者而言,由敘事素材中尋找文化及環境研究方向的著手點可由Thomas Harriot (1560-1621)出發,以下是Harriot對美洲維吉尼亞殖民地相關植物的描述:http://docsouth.unc.edu/nc/hariot/hariot.html

                            THE FIRST PART, 
                            OF MARCHANTABLE 
                    Silke of grasse or grasse Silke.
THere is a kind of grasse in the countrey vppon the blades where of there groweth very good silke in forme of a thin glittering skin to bee stript of. It groweth two foote and a halfe high or better: the blades are about two foot in length, and half inch broad. The like groweth in Persia, which is in the selfe same climate as Virginia, of which very many of the silke workes that come from thence into Europe are made. Here of if it be planted and ordered as in Persia, it cannot in reason be otherwise, but that there will rise in shorte time great profite to the dealers therein; seeing there is so great vse and vent thereof as well in our countrey as els where. And by the meanes of sowing & plãting in good ground, it will be farre greater, better, and more plentifull then it is. Although notwithstanding there is great store thereof in many places of the countrey growing naturally and wilde. Which also by proof here in England, in making a piece of silke Grogran, we found to be excellent good.
                              Worme Silke.
In manie of our iourneyes we found silke wormes fayre and great; as bigge as our ordinary walnuttes. Although it hath not beene our happe to haue found such plentie as elsew here to be in the coũtrey wehaue heard of; yet seeing that the countrey doth naturally breede and nourish them, there is no doubt but if art be added

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in plantig of mulbery trees and others fitte for them in commodious places, for their feeding and nourishing and some of them carefully gathered and husbanded in that sort as by men of skill is knowne to be necessarie: there will rise as great profite in time to the Virginians, as there of doth now to the Persians, Turkes, Italians and Spaniards.
                            Flaxe and Hempe.
        The trueth is that of Hempe and Flaxe there is no great store in any one place together, by reason it is not planted but as the soile doth yeeld it of it selfe; and howsoeuer the leafe, and stemme or stalke doe differ from ours; the stuffe by the iudgemẽt of men of skill is altogether as good as ours. And if not, as further proofe should finde otherwise; we haue that experience of the soile, as thas there cannobee shewed anie reason to the contrary, but that it will grow there excellent well; and by planting will be yeelded plentifully: seeing there is so much ground whereof some may well be applyed to such purposes. What benefite heereof may growe in cordage and linnens who can not easily vnderstand?
        There is a veine of earth along the sea coast for the space of fourtie or fiftie miles, whereof by the iudgement of some that haue made triall heere in England, is made good Allum, of that kinde which is called Roche Allum. The richnesse of such a commoditie is so well knowne that I neede not to saye any thing thereof. The same earth doth also yeelde White Copresse, Nitrum, and Alumen Plumeum, but nothing so plentifully as the common Allum; which be also of price and profitable.
        Wapeih, a kinde of earth so called by the naturall inhabitants; very like to terra sigillata: and hauing beene refined, it hath beene found by some of our Phisitiõs and Chirurgeons to bee of the same kinde of vertue and more effectuall. The inhabitãts vse it very much for the cure of sores and woundes: there is in diuers places great plentie, and in some places of a blewe sort.
                  Pitch, Tarre, Rozen, and Turpentine.
        There are those kindes of trees which yeelde them abundantly and great store. In the very same Iland where wee were seated, being fifteene miles of length, and fiue or fixe miles in breadth, there are fewe trees els but of the same kind; the whole Iland being full.

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        Sassafras, called by the inhabitantes Winauk, a kinde of wood of most pleasand and sweete smel; and of most rare vertues in phisick for the cure of many diseases. It is found by experience to bee farre better and of more vses then the wood which is called Guaiacum, or Lignum vitæ. For the description, the manner of vsing and the manifolde vertues thereof, I referre you to the booke f Monardus, translated and entituled in English, The ioyfull newes from the West Indies.
        Cedar, a very sweet wood & fine timber; wherof if nests of chests be there made, or timber therof fitted for sweet & fine bedsteads, tables, deskes, lutes, virginalles & many things else, (of which there hath beene proofe made already) to make vp fraite with other principal commodities will yeeld profite.
        There are two kinds of grapes that the soile doth yeeld naturally: the one is small and sowre of the ordinarie bignesse as ours in England: the other farre greater & of himselfe iushious sweet. When they are plãted and husbandeg as they ought, a principall commoditie of wines by them may be raised.
        There are two sortes of Walnuttes both holding oyle, but the one farre more plentifull then the other. When there are milles & other deuises for the purpose, a commodity of them may be raised because there are infinite store. There are also three seuerall kindes of Berries in the forme of Oke akornes, which also by the experience and vse of the inhabitantes, wee finde to yeelde very good and sweete oyle. Furthermore the Beares of the countrey are commonly very fatte, and in some places there are many: their fatnesse because it is so liquid, may well be termed oyle, and hath many speciall vses.
        All along the Sea coast there are great store of Otters, which beeyng taken by weares and other engines made for the purpose, will yeelde good profite. Wee hope also of Marterne furres, and make no doubt by the relation of the people but that in some places of the countrey there are store: although there were but two skinnes that came to our handes. Luzarnes also we haue vnderstãding of although for the time we saw none.

B.   延伸閱讀 Extended Reading