Troilus & Criseyde: a new edition of “The book of Troilus”

主題 Topic Chastity, Marriage, Widowhood, and Virginity
書刊名 TitleTroilus & Criseyde : a new edition of “The book of Troilus”
作者 AuthorGeoffrey Chaucer  (c.1340-.1400)
出版社 PublisherLongman
出版年 Year1984
語言 LanguageMiddle English
裝訂 Binding□ 平裝 Paperback    □ 精裝 Hardcover
頁數 Pages
(10 / 13)

Bibliography Reference  (STC, Duff, GW . . .)
來源網址 Web Link
撰寫日期 Date2014.11.28

A.   簡介 Introduction (within 100 words, Chinese or English)

古希臘時期荷馬史詩《伊里亞德》中的特洛伊戰爭,到了中世紀時期常成為詩人寫作時取材的歷史題材。其中,由特洛伊戰爭故事架構所衍生出發生於特洛伊圍城中,特洛伊王子托勒伊斯與克麗希答的愛情悲劇成為西歐中世紀時期廣受歡迎的故事。中世紀時期詩人如法國聖莫爾的貝納德( Benoît de Sainte-Maure)的作品Roman de Troie、義大利詩人薄伽丘作品Il Filostrato皆以史詩的形式,描寫托勒伊斯的深情以及克麗希答的背叛。十四世紀英國詩人喬叟承襲前人發展出關於托勒伊斯與克麗希答之愛情故事結構,以君王詩韻(rhyme royal)為韻腳,並將這段家喻戶曉的故事添加了中世紀宮廷愛情元素,成為了史詩傳奇文類。故事講述嘲諷愛情的特洛伊王子托勒伊斯騎士如何中了愛神的箭,一見鍾情特洛伊叛國者之女克麗希答。在克麗希答舅父潘卓司穿針引線下,托勒伊斯與克麗希答互訴情衷向彼此許下山盟海誓,永不背叛。然而,受到命運之輪的捉弄,克麗希答終究回到身在敵營的父親身邊,違背了與托勒伊斯之誓言。相較於前人,喬叟輕描淡寫克麗絲答的背叛,將之歸因於局勢所致,並把她的功過留給讀者判斷。故事結束於心碎的托勒伊斯戰死沙場,昇天的靈魂笑看人世間的無常。

B.   文本摘錄 Extracts (4-6 Pages)

Book 1 (lines 1-54)
The double sorwe of Troilus to tellen,
That was the kyng Priamus sone of Troye,
In louynge how his auentures fellen
ffro wo to wele, and after out of ioie,
My purpos is, er that I parte fro ye.
Thesiphone, thow help me for tendite
Thise woful vers that wepen as I write. 
To the clepe I, thow goddesse of torment,
Thow cruwel furie, sorwynge euere in peyne,
Help me that am the sorwful instrument
That helpeth loueres, as I kan, to pleyne;
ffor wel sit it, the sothe for to seyne,
A woful wight to han a drery feere,
 And to a sorwful tale a sory chere. 
ffor I, that god of loues seruantz serue,
Ne dar to loue, for myn vnliklynesse,
Preyen for speed, al sholde I ther-fore sterue,
So fer am I from his help in derknesse;
But natheles, if this may don gladnesse
To any louere and his cause auaille,
Haue he my thonk, and myn be this trauaille. 
But ȝe loueres that bathen in gladnesse,
If any drope of pyte in ȝow be,
Remembreth ȝow on passed heuynesse
That ȝe han felt, and on the aduersite
Of othere folk, and thynketh how that ȝe
Han felt that loue dorste ȝow displese,
Or ȝe han wonne hym with to grete an ese. 
And preieth for hem that ben in the cas
Of Troilus, as ȝe may after here,
That loue hem brynge in heuene to solas;
And ek for me preieth to god so dere
That I haue myght to shewe in som manere
Swich peyne and wo as loues folk endure,
In Troilus vnsely auenture. 
And biddeth ek for hem that ben despeired
In loue that neuere nyl recouered be,
And ek for hem that falsly ben apeired
Thorugh wikked tonges, be it he or she;
Thus biddeth god, for his benignite,
So graunte hem soone owt of this world to pace,
That ben despeired out of loues grace. 
And biddeth ek for hem that ben at ese.
That god hem graunte ay good perseueraunce,
And send hem myght hire ladies so to plese
That it to loue be worship and plesaunce;
ffor so hope I my sowle best auaunce,
To prey for hem that loues seruauntz be,
And write hire wo, and lyue in charite, 
  And for to haue of hem compassioun,
As though I were hire owne brother dere.
Now herkneth with a good entencioun,
ffor now wil I gon streght to my matere,
In which ȝe may the double sorwes here
Of Troilus in louynge of Criseyde,
And how that she forsook hym er she deyde. 
Yt is wel wist how that the Grekes stronge
In armes with a thousand shippes wente
To Troiewardes, and the cite longe
Assegeden, neigh ten ȝer er they stente,
And in diuerse wise and oon entente,
The rauysshyng to wreken of Eleyne,
 By Paris don, they wroughten al hir peyne.
Now fel it so that in the town ther was
Dwellynge a lord of gret auctorite.
A gret deuyn that clepid was Calkas,
That in science so expert was that he
Knew wel that Troie sholde destroied be,
By answere of his god that highte thus:
Daun Phebus or Appollo Delphicus.
Stanzas 11 through 20
So whan this Calkas knew by calkulynge,
And ek by answer of this Appollo.
That Grekes sholden swich a peple brynge
Thorugh which that Troie moste ben for-do,
He caste anon out of the town to go;
ffor wel wiste he by sort that Troye sholde
Destroyed ben -- зe, wolde who-so nolde.
ffor which forto departen softely
Took purpos ful this for-knowynge wise,
And to the Grekes oost ful pryuely
He stal anon; and they in curteys wise
Hym diden bothe worship and seruyce,
In trust that he hath konnynge hem to rede
In euery peril which that is to drede.
The noise vp ros whan it was first aspied
Thorugh al the town and generaly was spoken
That Calkas traitour fled was and allied
With hem of Grece, and casten to be wroken
On hym that falsly hadde his feith so broken,
And seyden he and al his kyn atones
Ben worthi for to brennen, felle and bones
Now hadde Calkas left in this meschaunce,
Al vnwist of this false and wikked dede,
His doughter, which that was in gret penaunce,
ffor of hire lif she was ful sore in drede,
As she that nyste what was best to rede;
ffor bothe a widewe was she and allone
Of any frend to whom she dorste hir mone.
Criseyde was this lady name al right --
As to my doom in al Troies cite
Nas non so fair, for passynge euery wight
So aungelik was hir natif beaute
That lik a thing in-mortal semed she,
As doth an heuenyssh perfit creature
That down were sent in scornynge of nature.