|主題 Topic||The Person|
|書刊名 Title||The Fifth Voyage of M. John White into the West Indies and Parts of America called Virginia, in the year 1590|
|作者 Author||John White|
|裝訂 Binding||□ 平裝 Paperback □ 精裝 Hardcover|
(10 / 13)
|Bibliography Reference||(STC, Duff, GW . . .)|
|撰寫日期 Date||July 2014|
John White (c. 1540 – c. 1593) was an English artist and a colonizer, who was a pioneer and an early settler to Roanoke, which mission proves a failure. The mismanagement of colony and the unpredictable happenings unveil colonial anxieties that result from military outpost competition, the stress on imperial identity and absurd profitable ventures. Disorder and mismanagement of the environment caused disparity between enthusiasm and depression, especially in the winter scene. In the last scenes, among this first group of the colonists are children singing Christmas carol in cold simple house, women feeding the sick with little food, and starving ones about to surrender to their enemies. When John Borden, Eleanor Dare, her baby and other fellow villagers stepped into the woods to look for another shelter, Green left hope for his audience to meditate on the missing migrants and the construction of an empire.
B. 文本摘錄 Extracts (4-6 Pages)
The 20 of March the three ships the Hopewell, the John Evangelist, and the Little John, put to sea from Plymouth [England] with two small shallops. . . . AUGUST. On the first of August the wind scanted [reduced], and from thence forward we had very foul weather with much rain, thundering, and great spouts, which fell round about us nigh unto our ships. The 3 we stood again in for the shore, and at midday we took the height of the same. The height of that place we found to be 34 degrees of latitude. Towards night we were within three leagues of the low sandy islands west of Wokokon. But the weather continued so exceeding foul, that we could not come to an anchor near the coast: wherefore we stood off again to sea until Monday the 9 of August. On Monday the storm ceased, and we had very great likelihood of fair weather: therefore we stood in again for the shore: & came to an anchor at 11 fathoms in 35 degrees of latitude, within a mile of the shore, where we went on land on the narrow sandy island, being one of the islands west of Wokokon: in this island we took in some fresh water and caught great store of fish in the shallow water. Between the main[land] (as we supposed) and that island it was but a mile over and three or four feet deep in most places. On the 12 in the morning we departed from thence and toward night we came to an anchor at the northeast end of the island of Croatoan, by reason of a breach which we perceived to lie out two or three leagues into the sea: here we rode all that night. . . . The 15 of August towards evening we came to an anchor at Hatorask [Hatteras], in 36 degr. and one third, in five fathoms water, three leagues from the shore. At our first coming to anchor on this shore we saw a great smoke rise in the isle Raonoke [sic] near the place where I left our colony in the year 1587, which smoke put us in good hope that some of the colony were there expecting my return out of England. The 16 and next morning our boats went ashore, & Captain Cooke, & Cap. Spicer, & their company with me, with intent to pass to the place at Raonoke, where our countrymen were left. At our putting from the ship we commanded our master gunner to make ready two minions and a falcon well loaded, and to shoot them off with reasonable space between every shot, to the end that their reports might be heard to the place where we hoped to find some of our people. This was accordingly performed, & our two boats put off unto the shore, in the Admiral’s boat we sounded all the way and found from our ship until we came within a mile of the shore nine, eight, and seven fathoms: but before we were halfway between our ships and the shore we saw another great smoke to the southwest of Kindriker’s mountains: we therefore thought good to go to the second smoke first: but it was much further from the harbor where we landed, then we supposed it to be, so that we were very sore tired before we came to the smoke. But that which grieved us more was that when we came to the smoke, we found no man nor sign that any had been there lately, nor yet any fresh water in all this way to drink. Being thus wearied with this journey we returned to the harbor where we left our boats, who in our absence had brought their cask ashore for fresh water, so we deferred our going to Roanoak [sic] until the next morning, and caused some of those sailors to dig in those sandy hills for fresh water whereof we found very sufficient. That night we returned aboard with our boats and our whole company in safety. The next morning being the 17 of August, or boats and company were repared again to go up to Roanoak, but Captain Spicer had then sent his boat ashore for fresh water, by means whereof it was ten of the clock afore noon before we put from our ships which were then come to an anchor within two miles of the shore. The Admiral’s boat was halfway toward the shore, when Captain Spicer put off from his ship. The Admiral’s boat first passed the breach, but not without some danger of sinking, for we had a sea break into our boat which filled us half full of water, but by the will of God and careful steerage of Captain Cooke we came safe ashore, saving only that our furniture, victuals, match and powder were much wet and spoiled. For at this time the wind blew at northeast and direct into the harbor so great a gale, that the sea broke extremely on the [sand]bar, and the tide went very forcibly at the entrance. By that time our Admiral’s boat was hauled ashore, and most of our things taken out to dry, Captain Spicer came to the entrance of the breach with his mast standing up, and was half passed over, but by the rash and indiscreet steerage of Ralph Skinner his master’s mate, a very dangerous sea broke into their boat and overset them quite, the men kept the boat some in it, and some hanging on it, but the next sea set the boat on ground, where it beat so, that some of them were forced to let go their hold, hoping to wade ashore; but the sea still beat them down, so that they could neither stand nor swim, and the boat twice or thrice was turned the keel upward, whereon Captain Spicer and Skinner hung until they sunk, & were seen no more. But four that could swim a little kept themselves in deeper water and were saved by Captain Cooke’s means, who so soon as he saw their oversetting, stripped himself, and four other that could swim very well, & with all haste possible rowed unto them, & saved four. They were 11 in all, & 7 of the chiefest were drowned, whose names were Edward Spicer, Ralph Skinner, Edward Kelley, Thomas Bevis, Hance the Surgeon, Edward Kelborne, Robert Coleman. This mischance did so much discomfort the sailors, that they were all of one mind not to go any further to seek the planters. But in the end by the commandment & persuasion of me and Captain Cooke, they prepared the boats: and seeing the captain and me so resolute, they seemed much more willing. Our boats and all things fitted again, we put off from Hatorask, being the number of 19 persons in both boats: but before we could get to the place, where our planters were left, it was so exceeding dark, that we overshot the place a quarter of a mile: there we spied towards the north end of the island the light of a great fire through the woods, to the which we presently rowed: when we came right over against it, we let fall our grapnel [anchor] near the shore, & sounded with a trumpet a call, & afterwards many familiar English tunes of songs, and called to them friendly; but we had no answer, we therefore landed at day-break, and coming to the fire, we found the grass & sundry rotten trees burning about the place. From hence we went through the woods to that part of the island directly over against Dasamongwepeuk, & from thence we returned by the water side, round about the north point of the island, until we came to the place where I left our colony in the year 1586. In all this way we saw in the sand the print of the savages’ feet of 2 or 3 sorts trodden the night, and as we entered up the sandy bank upon a tree, in the very brow thereof were curiously carved these fair Roman letters C R O which letters presently we knew to signify the place, where I should find the planters seated, according to a secret token agreed upon between them & me at my last departure from them, which was, that in any ways they should not fail to write or carve on the trees or posts of the doors the name of the place where they should be seated; for at my coming always they were prepared to remove from Roanoak 50 miles into the mainland. Therefore at my departure from them in An[no Domini] 1587 I willed them, that if they should happen to be distressed in any of those places, that then they should carve over the letters or name, a Cross in this form, but we found no such sign of distress. And having well considered of this, we passed toward the place where they were left in sundry houses, but we found the houses taken down, and the place very strongly enclosed with a high pallisade of great trees, with cortynes [curtains] and flankers very fortlike, and one of the chief trees or posts at the right side of the entrance had the bark taken off, and 5 feet from the ground in fair capital letters was graven CROATOAN without any cross or sign of distress; this done, we entered into the pallisade, where we found many bars of iron, two pigs of lead, four iron fowlers, iron sacker-shot, and such like heavy things, thrown here and there, almost overgrown with grass and weeds. From thence we went along by the water side, towards the point of the creek to see if we could find any of their boats or pinnaces, but we could perceive no sign of them, nor any of the last falcons and small ordinance which were left with them, at my departure from them. At our return from the creek, some of our sailors meeting us, told that they had found where divers chests had been hidden, and long since dug up again and broken up, and much of the goods in them spoiled and scattered about, but nothing left, of such things as the savages knew any use of, undefaced. Presently Captain Cooke and I went to the place, which was in the end of an old trench, made two years past by Captain Amadas: where we found five chests, that had been carefully hidden of the Planters, and of the same chests three were my own, and about the place many of my things spoiled and broken, and my books torn from the covers, the frames of some of my pictures and maps rotten and spoiled with rain, and my armor almost eaten through with rust; this could be no other but the deed of the savages our enemies at Dasamongwepeuk, who had watched the departure of our men to Croatoan; and as soon as they were departed dug up every place where they suspected any thing to be buried: but although it much grieved me to see such spoil of my goods, yet on the other side I greatly joyed that I had safely found a certain token of their safe being at Croatoan, which is the place where Manteo was born, and the savages of the island our friends.