The Doctrine of the Hert: A Critical Edition with Introduction and Commentary

主題 Topic Late medieval devotional literature, female spirituality
書刊名 TitleThe Doctrine of the Hert: A Critical Edition with Introduction and Commentary
作者 AuthorWhitehead, Christiania, Denis Renevey, and Anne Mouron (Editors)
出版社 PublisherExeter: University of Exeter Press, 2010.
出版年 Year2010
語言 Language英文
裝訂 Binding□ 平裝 Paperback    □ 精裝 Hardcover
頁數 Pages234
ISBN
(10 / 13)
9780859897785
Bibliography Reference  (STC, Duff, GW . . .)
來源網址 Web Linkhttp://ir.uiowa.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1924&context=mff
劇本簡介撰稿者王明月、蔡幸紋
撰寫日期 Date2016. 02.10

A.   簡介 Introduction (within 100 words, Chinese or English)

  成書於十三世紀時期、以拉丁文撰寫而成的《心的信條》(De doctrina cordis )為當時風行西歐廣為流傳的一部虔誠守則,計有270餘部手抄本及斷簡殘篇。內文以法文、義大利文、德文、荷文與西班牙文等各種中世紀晚期西歐語言翻譯與改寫並流傳下來。原拉丁文本包含七部書,每部各分成七個章節,以七個範疇探討一位基督徒的「心」,並連結至七個聖靈之恩典。西歐十三至十五世紀時期根據拉丁文本《心的信條》流傳下來的各種語言版本多為改寫之作,篇幅大為精簡。本書文本為十五世紀以中世紀英文撰寫的《心的信條》(The Doctrine of the Hert),目前其手抄本(Bodleian MS Laud Misc. 330)收藏在牛津大學柏德利圖書館。此作品歸類在中世紀晚期虔誠文學範疇,其針對的讀者群主要為女性基督徒,因此文本中出現大量以日常生活活動為意象,並賦予讀者基督教之教義和道德寓意;這一個特點讓此文本成為研究中世紀晚期俗家女子精神信仰領域工作者可依據的重要文獻。
    本書版本延續英國中世紀晚期虔誠文學常以女性讀者為主要書寫對象之傳統,其主要讀者群可能為俗家隱修女子或甚至是修女。此信仰守則教導隱修女子如何同修女們一般謹守虔誠教友須奉行的言行舉止戒律,如何管束自己的心,及規範自己的靈修生活。特別的是,文本第一書使用女性讀者熟悉的日常生活起居為意象,比喻耶穌基督像是到家中作客的尊貴客人,一位虔誠的基督徒必須打理好家中起居室,備妥桌椅擺設並準備豐盛的食物以迎接貴客。招待基督這位貴客最豐盛的食物即為基督徒虔誠的心;因此,如何攝心的方法成為此書最主要的議題,分為七個方法:一,以畏懼為恩典備妥心(praeparare-donum timoris);二,以知識為恩典守護心(custodire-donum scientiae);三,以虔誠為恩典敞開心(aperire-donum pietatis);四,以力量為恩典穩定心(stabilire-donum fortitudinis);五,以諮詢為恩典給予心(dare-donum consilii);六,以理解為恩典提升心(levare-donum intellectus);七,以智慧為恩典分割心(scindere-donum sapientiae)。
   本書編者群中的其中兩位學者Denis Renevey與Christiania Whitehead另編輯了A Companion to The Doctrine of the Hert: The Middle English Translation and its Latin and European Contexts論文集,是為本書文本之導讀著作。此論文集介紹了由拉丁文原作流傳下來的《心的信條》文本傳統裡的作者與讀者群之關係,亦從神學、文學、解構、語言學以及手抄本學等觀點解析此作品及十三世紀之後所流傳的各種語言翻譯和改寫版本。本論文集分為三部份,分別討論十三世紀拉丁文原文版本De doctrina cordis 、十五世紀英文版本,以及使用其他西歐方言如以中世紀法文、中世紀德文、中世紀荷蘭文與中世紀西班牙文所抄寫流傳的各種《心的信條》版本。由於《心的信條》為中世紀晚期以方言所寫之虔誠文學代表,不但為中世紀晚期廣為人知的作品,其背後更是蘊含豐富的源自拉丁文原著以來虔誠文學的傳統。一直以來鮮少有學者針對此作品深入研究,因此本論文集及新編之中世紀英文文本《心的信條》(The Doctrine of the Hert)不僅提供該領域研究者新的視角,也讓中世紀晚期方言虔誠文學獲得應有的重視。
 

Renevey, Denis and Christiania Whitehead, eds. A Companion to The Doctrine of the Hert: The Middle English Translation and its Latin and European Contexts. Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 2010. 

B.   文本摘錄 Extracts (4-6 Pages)

Prologue
(fol. Ir)
             
Intelligite, insipientes in populo; et stulti, aliquando sapite. As Seynt Austyn seyth, thes wordis ben undirstonde in this wise: ‘ye that ben unkunnyng in the nombre of Goddis people inwardly undirstondith, and ye that ben unavisid, yif ye have grace of any gostly kunnyng, sumtyme savorith sadly in hert.’ Myght not wel these words be undirstonde of suche that ben unkunnyng in religioun, the whiche also nowadays ben moche unstable in theire lyvyng, folowyng rather the ensample of seculer folk than the ensample of sad goostly religious folk? I trowe yis. (Lines 1-9)
   Such symple soules it is charite to enforme, namly seth oure lord yivyth us in charge, seiynge be the prophete Ysaye thus: Loquimini ad cor Jerusalem. That is, ‘spekith to the hert of Jerusalem.’ This word, ‘Jerusalum’, is nothing ellis to mene in this place but symple chosyn soules, to the hertis of whom oure lord wold that we spake. O, ho durst be recheles in enformynge of such symple soules, which oure lord brought with his previous blode and therto also hathe chosyn to his spouses, as ben thoo that dwellyn in religioun? Many, I wote wel, þer ben that speken to the body ouȝtward, but few to the hert inward of symple soules, and (fol. IV) that is pite. (Lines 10-19)
    I, þerfore, oon of thoo whiche oure lord hath clepid to his servise in religioun, alþogh I be no trew servaunt of his, have compilid this tretice that is clepid ‘the doctrine of the herte’, to the worship of God principally, and to edificacioun of symple soules, wherein is comprehendid an informacioun of hertis dividid into seven chapitres, in the whiche thei mow, be the grace of almyghty God, come to sadness of good lyvynge, yif þey wil do theyre bisynessis for to rede and undirstonde that they fynde write in this same tretice, not only with the lippis of the mouthe, but also and namly with the lippis of the soule. Clene and chast soules ever desiryn so for to rede that thei myght feele it savourly withinforth. Hertly redyng is a gracious meene to goostly felyng. In this wise, þerfor, shuld this tretice be rad or herd, and than wil oure lord worche be his grace, namly, þer the hertis be clene that redith it or herith it. (Lines 20-33)  
    Seynte Gregor seith in an omelie this text of Seynt John: Unccio eius docet nos de omnibus. ‘The soule’ he seith, ‘is ful febly enformyd be þe voyce withoughtforth, but yif it be anoynted be þe (fol. 2r) grace of þe holy gost withinforth.’ Wherfore I beseche almyghty God that al thoo, the whiche han this tretice in honed, mow so rede and undirstonde it, that it mow be theim encrese of vertue and of stable lyvynge. Amen. (Lines 34-39)
   
Captitulum primum. How and in what wise a mynche shuld make redy here hert to God be þe yifte of drede.
 
Captitulum secundum. How and in what wise a mynche shuld kepe here hert to God be the yifte of pite.
 
Captitulum tercium. How and what wise a mynche shuld opyn here hert to God be þe yifte of kunnynge.
 
Captitulum quartum. How and in what wise a mynche shuld stable here herte to God be þe yifte of strengthe.
 
Captitulum quintum. How and in what wise a mynche shuld ȝyve here hert to God bi þe yifte of counseile.
 
Captitulum sextum. How and in what wise a mynche shuld lefte up here hert to God be þe yifte of undirstondyng.
 
Captitulum septimum. How and in what wise a mynche (fol. 2v) shulde cutte here herte be the yifte of wisdom.
(Lines 40-54)