The Book of the Knight of La Tour-Landry, Compiled for the Instruction of His Daughters

主題 Topic Medieval marriage, advice literature
書刊名 TitleThe Book of the Knight of La Tour-Landry, Compiled for the Instruction of His Daughters
作者 AuthorGeoffrey de la Tour Landry; Trans. William Caxton; ed. T. Wright.
出版社 PublisherEETS, Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer
出版年 Year2000
語言 LanguageEnglish (Southeast Midland)
裝訂 Binding□ 平裝 Paperback    □ 精裝 Hardcover
頁數 Pages268
(10 / 13)
Bibliography Reference  (STC, Duff, GW . . .)
來源網址 Web Link
撰寫日期 Date2016.07.30

A.   簡介 Introduction (within 100 words, Chinese or English)

    《蘭德里塔騎士之書》(The Book of the Knight of the Tower / Livre pour l'enseignement de ses filles)為十四世紀晚期法國貴族,蘭德里塔的喬佛瑞(Geoffrey de la Tour Landry)於1371-2年間為子女所著之教育指引。喬佛瑞所寫的《蘭德里塔騎士之書》至今共有約二十餘本手抄本流傳下來;本書為十五世紀英文版本翻譯,文本來自1483年英國第一位印刷商人威廉卡克斯頓(William Caxton)所翻譯之作。喬佛瑞在書中序言提及此書之前他曾為兒子們撰寫一部指引,指導後輩宮廷生活中關於食衣住行育樂方面等規範,然該書已亡佚;喬佛瑞因思念喪妻,再加上當時宮廷社會常有王公貴族男子言行不檢,只為享受肉體歡娛而瞞騙已婚或未婚仕女,因此他再度振筆寫下此部指引。本書主要用途為教育喬佛瑞之女關於男女相處、婚姻之道與道德操守規戒。喬佛瑞鼓勵其女一切舉止能合乎教條,並朝著超越俗世的精神層次邁進;於此,本書收錄了由喬佛瑞所指派兩名修士抄寫聖經中關於義女與惡女的例證、歷代國王傳記、編年史,以及他個人與家族經歷。以這些為例證(exempla)或者說教故事,盼其女兒能引此為戒。學界一般認為此文本帶有濃厚中世紀厭女文化傳統(misogyny):女子為父系家庭資產,因此中世紀時期宮廷仕女的貞操或者婚姻選擇權常為父執輩當作政經關係籌碼,透過操弄女子婚姻為手段藉以政治結盟。除此之外,喬佛瑞的作品反映許多當時的軼事與實際社交活動,比如藉由其訓誡女子不宜在臉上塗抹過多脂粉、衣著雖可入時但不可太招搖等守則可視為反映中世紀晚期宮廷階層社會活動如衣著禁奢令(sumptuary law)之歷史檔案。

B.   文本摘錄 Extracts (4-6 Pages)

How men ought to love after his estate and degree.“What saye yow, lady, wold ye have kept them so straitly that they shold not take somme plesaunce more to somme than to the other?”
“Syre, I wylle not that they have or take ony plesaunce of them that ben of lower estate or degree than they be of, that is to wete, that no woman unwedded shalle not sette her love upon no man of lower or lasse degree than she is of. For yf she tooke hym, her parentes and frendes shold hold her lassed and hyndered. These, whiche loven suche folke, done ageynste theyre worship and honoure. For men ought to desyre ne coveyte nothynge so moche in this world as worship and the frendship of the world and of hir frendes, the whiche is lost as soone as she draweth oute her self oute of the governement and fro the counceyll of them, as I myght telle, yf I wold, an ensample of many whiche therfore ben dyffamed and hated of theyr parents and frendes.
“And therfore, syre, as I theyr moder charge and deffende them: that they take no playsaunce,3 ne that in no wyse sette theyr love to none of lower degree than they be come of, ne also to none of hyhe estate, whiche they may not have to their lord. For the grete lordes shalle not take them to theyr wyves, but alle theyr lovynge loke and semblaunt, they do it for to deceyve them and for to have the delytes and playsaunce of theyr bodyes, and for to brynge them in to the folye of the world.”
How wedded wymmen, whiche have sette theyr love to some of lower degree than they be of, are not worthy to be callyd wymmen.“Also, they whiche putte and sette theyr love on thre maner of folke – that is to wete, wedded men, prestes, and monkes, and as to servauntes and folke of noughte – these maner of wymmen, whiche take to theyr peramours and love suche folke, I hold them of none extyme ne valewe but that they be more gretter harlottes than they that ben dayly at the bordell. For many wymmen of the world done that synne of lechery but only for nede and poverte, or els by cause they have ben deceyved of hit by false counceylle of bawdes. But alle gentylle women whiche have ynough to lyve on, the whiche make theyre peramours or lovers suche maner of folke as before is sayd, it is by the grete ease wherin they be and by the brennynge lecherye of theyr bodyes. For they knowe wel that, after the lawe of theyr maryage, they may not have for theyr lordes ne to be theyr husbondes men of the chirche ne other of no valewe. This love is not for to recovere ony worship but alle dishonour and shame.”
How hit is almesse to enhaunce a man in to grete valour.“At the leste, syth ye wylle not graunte ne accorde that youre doughters love no man peramours as longe as they shalle be unwedded, please it yow to suffre that whanne they shall be wedded, they may take somme plesaunce of love for to hold and behave them self the more gaye and joyefull, and for the better knowe theyr behavynge and maner emonge folke of worship. And as before this tyme I have sayd to yow, it were to them grete welthe and worship to make a man of none extyme ne of valewe to become of grete valour.”
The answere of the lady of the towre.“Sire, to thys I ansuere yow: I wylle well and am content that they make good chere to all worshipfulle men, and more to somme than to the other, that is to wete, to them of gretter name and more gentyl, or els better men of theyr persones, and after that they bere to them worship and honour, and that they synge and daunce before them honourably. But as for to love peramours sythe they shall be wedded – withoute it be of suche love as men ought to bere unto folke of worshippe – for to love and worshippe them after that they be worthy and of valour, and whiche have had grete payne and travaylle to gete and acquere glorye and worshyp by theyr valyaunce in armes, these must be loved, doubted,5 served, and honoured withoute havynge in them ony plesaunce, sauf only for the bounte of them. But to saye and hold hit good that a wedded woman shold love and have a peramour, ne take the othe and feythe of none, to thende that they be theyr lovers and peramours, ne also to gyve also to gyve their feith and othe to none, I trowe and wene certaynly that no lady ne damoysell, wedded ne woman of other estate, shall not put her estate and worship in this balaunce . . .”
[About sumptuary] (pp. 70-3)
How a hooly bisshop reprysed and taught many ladyes.I shalle telle yow how a hooly man late dide preche, and was a bisshop, a right good clerke. At his prechynge and sermon were many ladyes and damoisellys, of which som were dressid and clothed after the newe manere. The remenaunt of their heedes was lyke two hornes and their gownes made after the newe gyse. Wherof, the good holy man had merveyle and began to repreve them, gyvynge and rehercynge to fore them many a fair ensample, and told them how the deluge or gaderyng of waters in the dayes of Noe was bycause of the pryde and desguysynge of men and specially of wymmen that counterfeted them self of newe and dishonest rayments. And thenne when thenemye sawe their grete pryde and their desguysynge, he made them to falle in the fylthe of the stynkyng synne of lecherye, whiche thynge was so moche displesynge to God that he dyde made to rayne fourty dayes and fourty nyghtes withoute cessynge in so moche that the waters were above the erthe and surmounted by heyght of ten cubites upon the hyhest montayn. Thenne was all the world drowned and perysshed, and none abode on lyve sauf only Noe, his wyf, his thre sones, and his thre doughters. And alle this grete meschyef cam bycause of that synne. And thenne as the bisshop had shewed to them this fayte5 and many other, he said that the wymmen that were so horned were like the snayle[s] that ben horned. He said more. “I doute,”6 said he, “that betwyxt their hornes thenemye hath made his mancion and dwellynge. For as they take hooly water, they cast dounward theyr faces, and that maketh the devylle syttynge upon their heede by nature and strengthe of the hooly water.” He tolde and reherced to them many merveyles in so moche that at the ende of his predicacion he made to be mowrnynge and full of thought, for he hadde repreved them so sore that they had so grete shame that they ne durst lyfte up their hedes and helde them mocked and diffamed of their vyce. And after, many of them caste awey their braunches and hornes, and held them lowe and went symply, for he saide that suche coyntyses,7 and suche countre-faytyng, and suche wantonnesse were to compare to the copspyn8 that maketh his nette to take the flyes. Ryght soo dothe the devylle by his temptacion the desguysyng in men and wymmen to the ende they may be enamoured one of other and for to take and brynge them to the delyte of lechery. He taketh them and byndeth them as the copspyn doth the flees in her nette, as a holy heremyte telleth in the booke of the faders of lyf, to whome was shewed by tonge as ye may fynde playnly in the said book.9 And yet he saith that the coulpe10 of the synne was in them that first tooke and brought up suche desguysynge, and that every good womman and wyse ought wel to drede the takynge and werynge of suche raymentes unto the tyme she seeth that every one comynly took and went in hem. For after the word of God, the first shall be the most blamed and the last shal syt on the hyhe syege.11 The bisshop, that a good man, was sayd an ensample upon the fait of them that hasted them to be the fyrst in takynge and bryngynge up suche novelteees, and said thus.
How the yong ladyes were scorned and mocked of the olde and auncyent.
It befelle that many ladyes and damoysels were come at the weddyng of a maide. As they were goyng to ward the place where as the dyner sholde be, they found a passynge fowle wey within a medowe. Thenne said the yong ladye[s], “We shalle wel go thorugh this medowe and leve the hyhe waye.” The auncyent and wyse said they shold go the hyhe way, for it was the best and more sure goynge and moost drye. The yonge ladyes, that ful were of their wylle, wolde not folowe them and thought they shold be bifore them at the said place. And soo they tooke their weye thorugh the medowe where were old cloodes12 all roten. As they were upon them, they brake under theyr feet, and soo they felle in the myere and dyrte unto the knees, and with grete peyne cam they oute ageyne and took the hyghe weye. They made clene their hosen and gownes with theyr knyves the best they couthe. So long they were in wasshyng of their hoses and gownes that they myght not come to the begynnyng of the dyner. Every one demaunded and asked after them, but no body couth tell of them. At the last they cam as the fyrst mes or cours was eten, and after they had taken their refection and wel dronken, they beganne to telle and recounte how they were falle in the myre unto the knees to. “Ye,” said thenne a good auncyent and wyse lady that was come by the hyghe weye. “Ye wend to take the shortest way to thende ye myght be the sonner and fyrst at the place and wold not folowe us. Hit is wel bestowed. For I telle yow for certayne that some wene to avaunce them self that hyndreth them, and suche one is that weneth to be the first and formest that ofte fyndeth her the last of all.” She gaf them these two notables to thende they shold know their faute. For as saith the said holy man, “Thus is hit of this worlde. They that first may have noveltees of the world wene to doo wel and be therfore enhaunced and tofore other ben holden and wysshed, but as for one that holdeth hit wel done, ther ben ten that m[o]ken of hit. For suche one preyseth their doynge before them that behynde their back putteth out his tonge, scorynynge and mockyn them.”
Yet of the same.
She holdeth her self the best welcome that firste bryngeth upon her ony noveltees, but as the good and hooly man saith, “They that firste take suche newe raymentis be lyke to the yong ladyes that fylle in the myere wherof they were mocked by the wyse ladyes that tooke the best and ryght wey, for men may not mocke them that kepe suche wey and that use their lyf after reason and not after theyr owne wylle. I say not but that whan that manere of newe raymentis is taken and comynly wered of every one and in every towne, it may be thenne worne and taken, but yet the wyse woman shal leve and forbere it yf she can. And suche wymmen shalle not be lyke ne compared to them that fylle in the myere by cause they wold be first in the place, and they were the last.” Ther-fore, my faire doughters, hit is good that none hast her not, but good is to holde the myddel estate. The lesse is the moost certayne and seurest, but as now is a cursed and shrewed world for, yf somme folysshe woman full of her wylle taketh and bryngeth upon her ony noveltee and newe estate, every other one shalle soone saye to her lorde, “Syre it is told to me that suche one hath suche a thynge that over faire is, and that so wel becometh her, I pray yow good syre that I may have suche one, for I am as good and as gentyll of blood. And, ye, as gentyl a man as
she and her lord ben and have as wel for to paye as she hath.” And thus she shalle fynde soo many reasons that she shalle have her wylle or els ryote and noyse shalle all day be at home and never shalle be ther pees tylle she have her parte, be it right or wronge. She shalle not loke yf ony of hir neyghbours have that thynge that she wylle have. Also, she shalle not abyde till every one have it, but the hastlyest that she may, she shalle doo shape and make it, and forth-with shalle were it. It is merveyle of suche coyntyse and noveltees wherof the grete clerkes say that, seynge the men and wymmen so desguysed and takyng every day newe raiments, they doute that the world shalle perysshe as it dyd in tyme of Noe that the wymmen desguysed them and also the men, whiche displeysed God. And herupon I shalle reherce yow [a] merveil whiche a good lady dyde recounte to me in this same yere. She tolde and saide to me that she, with many other ladyes, were come to a feeste of Seynt Margrete, where as every yere was grete assemble made. There cam a lady moche coynt13 and joly, and dyversly disguysed and arraid more than ony other there. And by cause of her straunge and newe array, everychone of them cam to beholde and loke on her, as it had be a wylde beest, for her clothyng and araye was different and no thyng lyke to theyr, and therfore she had wel her part beholdyng and lokyng. Thenne said the good ladyes to her, “My frende, telle ye us yf it please yow how ye name that aray that he have on youre heed?” She answerde and saide, “The galhows aray.” “God bless us said the good lady, the name of hit is not faire, and I ne wote how suche aray may plese yow.” The tydyng of this aray and of his name were borne al aboute hyghe and lowe, wherof every one s[c]orned and mocked her. And as mockyng and scornynge cam there she was to beholde and loke upon her, I dyde aske of the good lady the manere and facion of the same araye, and she tolde me the manere of it, but evylle I witheld it. But as ferre as I me remembre of it, hit was hyghe enlewed14 with longe pynnes of sylver uppon her hede after the makynge and maner of a gybet or galhows, right straunge and merveylous to se. And in good feyth after that tyme, the yonge and folysshe lady that had that araye on her heede was ever mocked and scorned and nought set by. Here shal I leve to speke of the newe and desguysed ray-mentis and of the good bisshop that so repreved them that hadde and wered suche araye. And that dede shewe to them by ensamples and hooly scripture how that suche noveltees that specially wymmen took on them was token and signe of somme gret mes- chyef to come as is were, famyne, and pestylence.