Sir Gawain and the Green Knight

主題 Topic Medieval English romance
書刊名 TitleSir Gawain and the Green Knight
作者 AuthorAnonymous; Trans. Jessie L. Weston
出版社 PublisherIn Parentheses Publications
Cambridge, Ontario
出版年 Year1999
語言 LanguageEnglish
裝訂 Binding□ 平裝 Paperback    □ 精裝 Hardcover
頁數 Pages
ISBN
(10 / 13)
Bibliography Reference  (STC, Duff, GW . . .)
來源網址 Web Linkhttp://www.yorku.ca/inpar/ (verse, trans. Jessie L. Weston)
http://www.yorku.ca/inpar/ (prose, trans. Jessie L. Weston)
 
參考資料:
蘇其康。《歐洲傳奇文學風貌:中古時期的騎士歷險與愛情謳歌》。台北:書林,2005。
劇本簡介撰稿者郭如蘋、洪沛茵
撰寫日期 DateAug. 20, 2016

A.   簡介 Introduction (within 100 words, Chinese or English)

本詩描述在亞瑟王宮殿的慶典上,來了一名不速之客,一身綠色束裝,要和應戰者玩遊戲,規則是各自在脖子上斬一刀。高威爵士挺身而出砍下了綠騎士的頭,綠騎士把頭撿起,要高威記帳,一年後接受他一刀。在和綠騎士交易的過程中,高威始終展現他的騎士風範與忠誠度,但後來牽涉到綠騎士夫人Lady Bertilak時,高威的信譽開始受到測試。
這首詩只留存於單一的手稿上—the Cotton Nero A.x.,此手稿還同時包括了三首宗教敘事詩,名為Pearl, Patience以及Cleanliness (Purity)。歷來學者皆認為這四首詩出自同一不知名的作者,一般稱為「珍珠詩人」或「高威詩人」。

B.   文本摘錄 Extracts (4-6 Pages)

The Verse (From I to VI)
 
Book One
 
I
 
Since Troy's assault and siege, I trow, were over-past,
To brands and ashes burnt that stately burg at last,
And he, the traitor proved, for treason that he wrought,
Was fitly tried and judged, —his fortune elsewhere sought
The truest knight on earth, Æneas, with his kin,
Who vanquished provinces, and did, as princes, win
Of all the Western Isles, the wealth and worth alway;
Rich Romulus to Rome full swift hath ta'en his way,
First, hath he founded fair that city in his pride
To which he gave his name, it bears it to this tide;
Ticius doth dwellings found, turning to Tuscany,
And Langobard, a race raised up in, Lombardy.
But Felix Brutus sailed full far, o'er the French flood,
And on its banks so broad founded Britain, the good,
                                                           in bliss;
                                       Where war nor wonder fail
                                       And ne'er have done, ywis,
                                       Nor shall both bliss and bale
                                       Their shifting chance miss.
 
II
 
And when that baron bold had Britain made, I trow,
Bold men were bred therein, who loved strife well enow,
And many a war they waged in those good days of yore—
Of marvels stern and strange, in this land many more
Have chanced than otherwhere, since that same time, I ween—
But of all kings who e'er o'er Britain lords have been,
Fairest was Arthur all, and boldest so men tell;
Therefore I think to shew a venture that befell
In his time, which some men for a sheer wonder hold,
And strange above all tales that be of Arthur told.
If ye will list this lay a little while, in sooth,
I'll tell ye as I heard it told in town for truth
                                          with tongue—
                                          As it doth stand, to wit,
                                          In story stiff and strong,
                                          In letters fairly writ ,
                                          The land hath known it long.  
 
III
 
At Camelot lay the King, all on a Christmas-tide,
With many a lovely lord, and gallant knight beside,
And of the Table Round did the rich brotherhood
High revel hold aright, and mirthful was their mood:
Oft-times on tourney bent those gallants sought the field,
And gentle knights in joust would shiver spear and shield;
Anon would seek the court tor sport aid carol gay—
For fifteen days full told the feast was held alway,
With all the meat and mirth that men might well devise,
Right glorious was the glee that rang in riotous wise.
Glad clamour through the day, dancing throughout the night;
Good luck throughout, the hall and chamber well bedight,
Had lords and ladies fair, each one as pleased him best,
With all of this world's weal they dwelt, those gallant guests;
For Christ no braver knights had faced or toil or strife,
No fairer ladies e'er had drawn the breath of life,
And he, the comeliest king that e'er held court, forsooth,
For all this goodly folk were e'en in their first youth,
                                         and still
                                         The happiest under heaven,
                                         A king of stalwart will,
                                        'T were hard with them to even
                                         Another host on hill! 
 
IV
 
So young the New Year was, methinks it just was born,
Double upon the dais they served the meat that morn;
Into the hall he came, with all his knights, the King,
E'en as the chapel choir to end the mass did sing.
Loud rang the voice of clerk and cantor there aloft,
“Nowell, Nowell!” they sang, and cried the word full oft.
And sithen forth they run for handsel fair and free
Their New Year's gifts they pray, or give them readily.
And then about the gifts they make debate enow,
And ladies laugh full loud, tho' they have lost, I trow!
And this I rede ye well, not wroth was he who won! —
And all this mirth they made till meal-time came—anon
The board was set, they washed, and then in order meet
The noblest aye above, each gallant took his seat.
When Gaynore, gayly clad, stepped forth among them all,
Upon the royal dais, high in the midmost hall.
Sendal swept at her side, and eke above her head
A tapestry of Tars, and choice Toulouse outspread,
And all embroidered fair, and set with gems so gay
That might be proved of price, an ye their worth would pay
                                                           one day;
                                        Right fair she was, the queen,
                                        With eyes of shining grey,
                                        That fairer he had seen
                                        No man might soothly say! 
 
V
 
Arthur, he would not eat till all were served with food,
Glad of his gladness he, somewhat of child-like mood;
A changeful life he loved, he liked it not a whit,
Either o'er-long to lie, or e'en o'er-long to sit,
So chafed his youthful blood, and eke his busy brain.
Also a custom good, to which the King was fain—
Thro' valour 'stablished fast— that never would he eat
On such high holiday ere yet adventure meet
Were told unto his ear—or wondrous tale enow,
Or else some marvel great that he might well allow—
Tales of his father's days, of arms, of emprise high,—
Or e'en some knight besought another's skill to try,
To join with him in joust, in jeopardy to lay
Life against life, each one, on hap of knightly play.
As Fortune them might aid—in quest of honour fair—
This was his custom good when as in court he were
At each high holiday, among his courtiers there
                                                           in hall,
                                        Fair-faced, and free of fear,
                                        He sitteth o'er them all,
                                        Right keen in that New Year,
                                        And maketh mirth withal. 
 
VI
 
Thus in his place he stands, the young and gallant king,
Before the royal board, talking of many a thing.
There good Gawain, gay clad, beside Gaynore doth sit,
Agravain "dure main," beyond her as is fit;
(Both the King's sister's sons, and knights of valiant mood—)
High at the table sits Baldwin the Bishop good,
And Ywain, Urien's son, doth with the Bishop eat—
These on the dais are served, in seemly wise, and meet.
Full many a gallant knight sits at the board below;
See where the first course comes, while loud the trumpets blow!
With many a banner bright that gaily waves thereby,
And royal roll of drums, and pipes that shrill on high.
Wild warblings waken there, and sweet notes rise and fall,
Till many a heart swelled high within that castle hall!
Dainties they bring therewith, and meats both choice and rare—
Such plenty of fresh food, so many dishes bear,
They scarce might find a place to set, the folk before,
The silver vessels all that savoury messes bore,
                                      on cloth,
                                      The guests they help themselves,
                                      Thereto they be not loth,
                                      Each twain had dishes twelve,
                                      Good beer, and red wine both.