Ship of Fools 《愚者之舟》

主題 Topic 
書刊名 TitleShip of Fools 《愚者之舟》
作者 AuthorSebastian Brant /譯者: Alexander Barclay (1476-1552)
出版社 PublisherHenry Sotheran & CO.
出版年 Year1996 reprint
語言 LanguageEnglish
裝訂 Binding□ 平裝 Paperback    ■精裝 Hardcover
頁數 PagesVol. I: 347 ; Vol. II: 351
ISBN
(10 / 13)
Bibliography Reference  (STC, Duff, GW . . .)
來源網址 Web Link
劇本簡介撰稿者李祁芳、林柏豪
撰寫日期 Date29 Aug. 2015

A.   簡介 Introduction (within 100 words, Chinese or English)

《愚者之舟》(Ship of Fools)由德國作家賽巴斯汀‧布朗特(Sebastian Brant)於1494年出版之作品。其流行的程度使之得以不斷再版,在當時書本製作成本仍相當高昂的時代,堪稱出版奇蹟。印刷術發明後,印刷技術使此書的流行程度更為廣泛,甚至跨越國界遍及歐洲各地區。這本書到底有何特殊之處得以蔚為風潮呢?《愚者之舟》是德國在馬丁路德宗教改革之前,對當時腐敗的天主教會做出強烈批判之諷刺文學作品。作者本身為一名虔誠的教徒,自小受教會的教育長大,也知悉教會的運作。除了熟知教會所教導之神學外,布朗特也學習了許多古籍及經典。教會教育(theology)與古典學術(humanism)的融合使他看到了教會的權力濫用與無知,原本應該是要提供心靈歸屬的教會(以舟做比喻)似乎不知要將盲目、無判斷力的信徒(愚者)帶向何方,而信徒也傻呼呼的上了愚人船,對於無人領行之船隻要航向何處漠不關切,作品中對於信徒的行為做了深入的刻畫。教會與信徒的雙重盲目造就了社會的動盪不安。布朗特因此將之比擬為一船的傻蛋,不知航行的目的,只有共同向下沉淪一途。此書諷刺的手法獲得各界讚揚,崔西米厄斯(Trithemius)稱之為神聖般的嘲諷 (Divina Satira),此書影響力可見一般。綜觀本書,可得三個重點。第一,本書以德文方言寫成,在宗教改革之前,用淺顯易懂的方言讓讀者了解當時社會及教會的運作,開啟民智,讓市井小民透過諷刺文思索信徒與教會的關係不對等,並反思教會的諸多主張是否具正確性與合法性。第二、本書後又翻譯成英文、法文等語言,除了有助新教思想的傳播外,在文化上更有助於各地方言的發展,並提升當時人民識字率。另外,以方言為媒介使得後來信仰新教的人民更能方便運用簡單的方言表達自己的意見。第三、無論是口語傳播或是寫作出版上,《愚者之舟》所獲得的迴響共鳴,為後來的宗教改革(Reformation)產生了推波助瀾之極大影響。

B.   文本摘錄 Extracts (4-6 Pages)

                 Of contempt, or dispisynge of holy scripture.
Suche as dispyseth auncyent scripture
Whiche prouyd is of great auctoryte
And hath no pleasoure felycyte or cure
Of godly Prophetis whiche wrote of veryte
A fole he is for his moste felycyte
Is to byleue the tales of an olde wyfe
Rather than the doctryne of eternall lyfe
The holy Bybyll grounde of trouth and of lawe
Is nowe of many abiect and nought set by
Nor godly scripture is nat worth an hawe
But talys ar louyd grounde of rybawdry
And many blynddyd ar so with theyr foly
That no scripture thynke they so true nor gode
As is a folysshe yest of Robyn hode.
He that to scripture wyll not gyue credence
Wherin ar the armys of our tuycion
And of our fayth foundacion and defence
Suche one ensueth nat the condycion
Of man resonable, but by abusyon
Lyuyth as a best of conscyence cruell
As saue this worlde were neyther heuen nor hell.
He thynketh that there is no god aboue
Nor nobler place than is this wretchyd grounde
Nor goddes power suche neyther fere nor loue
With whom all grace and mercy doth abounde
Whiche whan hym lyst vs wretches may confounde
Alas what auayleth to gyue instruction
To suche lewde folys of this condycion.
It nought auayleth vnto them to complayne
Of theyr blyndnes, nor enfourme them with vertue
Theyr cursed lyfe wyll by no mean refrayne
Their viciousnes, nor their erroure eschewe
But rather stody theyr foly to renewe
Alas what profytis to suche to expresse.
The heuenly ioy, rewarde of holynesse.
Alas what auayleth to suche to declare
The paynes of hell, wo dissolate and derke
No wo nor care can cause suche to beware
From their lewde lyfe corrupt and synfull warke
What profyteth sermons of any noble clarke
Or godly lawes taught at any Scolys
For to reherse to these myscheuous folys.
What helpeth the Prophetis scripture or doctryne
Unto these folys obstynate and blynde
Their hertis ar harde, nat wyllynge to enclyne
To theyr preceptis nor rote them in theyr mynde
Nor them byleue as Cristen men vnkynde
For if that they consydred heuen or hell
They wolde nat be so cursed and cruell
And certaynly the trouth apereth playne
That these folys thynke in theyr intent
That within hell is neyther car nor payne
Hete nor colde, woo, nor other punysshement
Nor that for synners is ordeyned no turment
Thus these mad folys wandreth euery houre
Without amendement styll in theyr blynde erroure
Before thy fete thou mayst beholde and se
Of our holy fayth the bokys euydent
The olde lawes and newe layde ar before the
Expressynge christes tryumphe right excellent
But for all this set is nat thyne intent
Theyr holy doctryne to plant within thy brest
Wherof shold procede ioy and eternall rest
Trowest thou that thy selfe wyllyd ignoraunce
Of godly lawes and mystycall doctryne
May clense or excuse thy blynde mysgouernaunce
Or lewde erroure, whiche scorne hast to inclyne
To theyr preceptis: and from thy synne declyne
Nay nay thy cursed ignoraunce sothly shall
Drowne thy soule in the depe flodes infernall
Therfore let none his cursydnes defende
Nor holy doctryne, nor godly bokes dispyse
But rather stody his fawtes to amende
For god is aboue all our dedes to deuyse
Whiche shall rewarde them in a ferefull wyse
With mortall wo that euer shall endure
Whiche haue dyspysyd his doctryne and scripture
Barclay To the Folys.
 
Out of your slomber folys I rede you ryse.
Scripture dyuyne, to folowe and inbrace
Be nat so bolde it to leue nor dispyse
But you enforce it to get and purchase
Remember mannys consort and solace.
Is holy closyd within the boke of lyfe
Who that it foloweth hath a speciall grace
But he that doth nat a wretche is and caytyfe
 
 
 
Of folys without prouysyon.
Of other folys yet is a moche nomber
Whom I wolde gladly brynge to intellygence
To auoyde their blyndnes which sore doth incomber
Theyr mynde and herte for lackynge of science
Suche ar vnware and gyuen to neglygence
Mad and mysmyndyd pryuate of wysdome
Makynge no prouysyon for the tyme to come.
If any mysfortune aduersyte or wo
As often hapnyth, to suche a fole doth fall
Than sayth he I thought it wolde nat haue be so
But than ouer late is it agayne to call
It is nat ynough thou fole to say I shall
For this one daye prouyde me by wysdome
A wyse man seyth peryll longe before it come
He is vnwyse and of prouysyon pore
That nought can se before he haue damage
Whan the stede is stolyn to shyt the stable dore
Comys small pleasoure profyte or vauntage
But he that can suche folysshenes asswage
Begynnynge by counsayll, and fore prouydence
Is sure to escape all inconuenyence
Whan Adam tastyd the appyll in Paradyse.
To hym prohybyte by dyuyne commaundement
If he had noted the ende of his interpryse
To Eue he wolde nat haue ben obedyent
Thus he endured right bytter punysshement
For his blynde erroure and improuydence
That all his lynage rue sore for his offence.
Hymselfe dryuyn out from Paradyce all bare
With Eue, into this vale of wretchydnes
To get theyr lyuynge with laboure payne and care
And also if Jonathas by errour and blyndnes
Had nat receyued the gyftis of falsnes
Unto hym gyuen of Tryphon by abusyon
He sholde haue escapyd great confusyon
If that he before had notyd craftely
His ennemyes gyftis of frawde full and of treason
He myght haue sauyd hymselfe from ieoperdy
And all his people by prouydence and reason
Where as he blynde was as at that season
And to a cyte broughte in by a trayne
Where he was murdred and all his people slayne
Julius Cesar the chefe of conquerours
Was euer warre and prudent of counsayle
But whan he had obteyned great honours
And drewe to rest as wery of Batayle
Than his vnwarnes causyd hym to wayle
For if he had red with good aduysement
The letter whiche to the counselhous was sent
He had nat gyuen his owne iugement
As he dyd by his foly and neglygence
For whiche he murdred was incontynent
Without respect had vnto his excellence
Alas se here what inconuenyence
Came to this Emperour hye and excellent
For nat beyng wyse dyscrete and prouydent
If Nichanor before had noted well
The ende of his dedes he had nat be slayne
By Judas and the children of Israell
His hande and tunge cut of to his great payne
And than his hede, as the bybyll sheweth playne
Thus may all knowe that wyll therto entende
Wherto they come that caryth nat the ende
But he that begynneth by counsayll and wysdome
Alway procedynge with good prouysyon
Notynge what is past and what is for to come
Suche folowys godly scripture and monycion
In happy wayes without transgressyon
Of goddes lawes, and his commaundement
And often tymes comys to his intent.
Thus it appereth playne and euydent
That wyse prouysyon, prose and good counsayle
Are moche laudable, and also excellent
And to mankynde great profyte and auayle.
Where as those folys haue often cause to wayle
For theyr mysfortune, in sorowe vexed sore
Whiche ought begyn nat prouydyd before
The Enuoy of Alexander Barclay.
 
O man remember thou canste nat abyde
Styll in this lyfe therfore moste specially
For thy last ende thou oughtest to prouyde.
For that prouysion forsoth is most godly
And than next after thy mynde thou ought aply
To fle offence, and bewayle thyne olde synne
And in all workes and besynes worldly
What may be the ende marke well or thou begynne