Richard the Redeless and Mum and the Sothsegger

主題 Topic Romance, marriage, incest, enComplaint literature, grievance, satire, political writing
書刊名 TitleRichard the Redeless and Mum and the Sothsegger
作者 AuthorJames M. Dean (editor)
出版社 PublisherKalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications
出版年 Year2010
語言 LanguageMiddle English: East Midland, Cambridgeshire
裝訂 Binding□ 平裝 Paperback    □ 精裝 Hardcover
頁數 Pages183
(10 / 13)
Bibliography Reference  (STC, Duff, GW . . .)
來源網址 Web Link
撰寫日期 Date1580440681

A.   簡介 Introduction (within 100 words, Chinese or English)

   英國十四世紀末至十五世紀初敘述詩《無人輔佐的理查》(Richard the Redeless)以及《靜默者與真語者》(Mum and the Sothsegger)皆為批判十四世紀時局與朝政之政治詩(political writing)。英王理查二世(Richard II, 1367-1400)是中世紀英國晚期著名的暴君,其政權於1399年為亨利四世所推翻。當時社會對理查二世的統治怨聲載道,反對者常以十四世紀中期最著名的批判時事的作品《皮爾斯農夫》(Piers Plowman)為效仿對象。《無人輔佐的理查》屬勵志文學(advice literature, or “mirror of the prince”)。以頭韻(alliteration)成詩,由敘述者以倒敘方式回顧理查政權,主張其暴政源於缺乏得力的朝臣輔佐。《靜默者與直言者》則為中世紀文學中常見的辯論詩(debate),韻體亦為頭韻。詩中以沈默不語的靜默者「靜默者」以及直言不諱有話直說的「真語者」等二位角色(allegorical characters)針對理查二世以及推翻理查政局的繼任者亨利四世(Henry the Fourth)統治下的英國朝政與社會亂相大加撻伐,比如嘲諷國王的王權濫用、聽信寵臣、鋪張奢華以及強課重稅等案例。由於此二文本皆由無名詩人所寫成,且兩詩韻體、主題,以及詩中大量出現的宮廷與法律用字等雷同之處常讓人臆測兩詩為同一作者之作品,並推測其出自律師之筆。然晚近學者如本書編者James Dean則認為儘管兩文本皆批判十四世紀晚期政治時局,《無人輔佐的理查》僅針對理查的性格個人事蹟,以及作為國王的價值等議題提出建言,而《靜默者與直言者》則以廣泛的視角探討英國國政與政權的操作,較少針對國王個人行為。這一類作品在英國文學典律中雖然鮮少為人注意,它們卻是以民怨視角為出發點的文學產物,讓吾人得以一窺英國中世紀晚期政治與社會之間緊繃的關係。

B.   文本摘錄 Extracts (4-6 Pages)

Richard the Redeless
[Prologus] (Lines 1-87)
And as I passid in my preiere ther prestis were at messe,
In a blessid borugh that Bristow is named
In a temple of the Trinité the toune even amyddis,
That Cristis Chirche is cleped amonge the comune peple,
Sodeynly ther sourdid selcouthe thingis,
A grett wondir to wyse men, as it well myghth,
And dowtes for to deme for drede comynge after.
So sore were the sawis of bothe two sidis,
Of Richard that regned so riche and so noble,
That wyle he werrid be west on the wilde Yrisshe, 1
Henrri was entrid on the est half,
Whom all the londe loved, in lengthe and in brede,
And rosse with him rapely to rightyn his wronge,
For he shullde hem serve of the same after.
Thus tales me troblid, for they trewe where,
And amarride my mynde rith moche and my wittis eke. 2
For it passid my parceit and my preifis also
How so wondirffull werkis wolde have an ende.
But in sothe whan they sembled some dede repeute,
As knowyn is in cumpas of Cristen londis,
That rewthe was, if reson ne had reffourmed
The myssecheff and the mysserule that men tho in endurid.
I had peté of his passion that prince was of Walis,
And eke our crouned kynge, till Crist woll no lenger.
And as a liage to his lord, though I lite hade,
All myn hoole herte was his while he in helthe regnid.
And for I wuste not witterly what shulde fall,
Whedir God wolde geve him grace sone to amende, 3
To be oure gioure ageyn or graunte it another,
This made me to muse many tyme and ofte,
For to written him a writte, to wissen him better,
And to meuve him of mysserewle, his mynde to reffresshe
For to preie the prynce that paradise made
To fullfill him with feith and fortune above,
And not to grucchen a grott ageine Godis sonde,
But mekely to suffre what-so him sente were.
And yif him list to loke a leef other tweyne,
That made is to mende him of his myssededis,
And to kepe him in confforte in Crist and nought ellis,
I wolde be gladde that his gost myghte glade be my wordis,
And grame if it greved him, be God that me boughte.
Ther nys no governour on the grounde ne sholde gye him the better; 4
And every Cristen kyng that ony croune bereth,
So he were lerned on the langage, my lyff durst I wedde, 5
Yif he waite well the wordis and so werche therafter,
For all is tresour of the Trinité that turneth men to gode.
And as my body and my beste oute to be my liegis,
So rithffully be reson my rede shuld also,
For to conceill, and I coughthe, my kyng and the lordis;
And therfor I fondyd with all my fyve wyttis
To traveile on this tretis, to teche men therafter
To be war of wylffulnesse, lest wondris arise.
And if it happe to youre honde, beholde the book onys,
And redeth on him redely rewis an hundrid,
And if ye savere sumdell, se it forth overe,
For reson is no repreff, be the rode of Chester.
And if ye fynde fables or foly ther amonge,
Or ony fantasie yffeyned, that no frute is in,
Lete youre conceill corette it, and clerkis togedyr, 6
And amende that ys amysse, and make it more better.
For yit it is secrette and so it shall lenger,
Tyll wyser wittis han waytid it overe,
That it be lore laweffull and lusty to here.
For witterly, my will is that it well liked
You and all youris and yonge men leveste,
To benyme hem her noyes that neweth hem ofte.
For and they muse theron to the myddwardis,
They shall fele fawtis foure score and odde,
That youghthe weneth alwey, that it be witt evere.
And though that elde opyn it otherwhile amonge,
And poure on it prevyly and preve it well after,
And constrewe ich clause with the culorum,
It shulde not apeire hem a peere, a prynce though he were,
Ne harme nother hurte the hyghest of the rewme,
But to holde him in hele and helpe all his frendis.
And if ony word write be that wrothe make myghte
My sovereyne, that suget I shulde to be,
I put me in his power, and preie him, of grace,
To take the entent of my trouthe, that thoughte non ylle,
For to wrath no wyght be my wyll nevere,
As my soule be saff from synne at myn ende.
The story is of non estate that stryven with her lustus,
But tho that folwyn her flessh and here frelle thoughtis; 7
So if my conceyll be clere, I can saie no more,
But ho be greved in his gost, governe him better,
And blame not the berne that the book made,
But the wickyd will, and the werkis after.
Mum and the Sothsegger
 (Lines 1-53)
Hough the coroune moste be kepte fro covetous peuple
Al hoole in his hande and at his heeste eke,
That every knotte of the coroune close with other,
And not departid for prayer ne profit of grete,
Leste uncunnyng come yn and caste up the halter
And crie on your cunseil for coigne that ye lacke,
For thay shal smaicche of the smoke and smerte thereafter
Whenne collectours comen to caicche what thay habben. 1
And though your tresorier be trewe and tymbre not to high, 2
Hit wil be nere the worse atte wyke-is ende,
For two yere a tresorier twenty wyntre aftre
May lyve a lordis life, as leued men tellen.
Now your chanchellier that chief is to chaste the peuple
With conscience of your cunseil that the coroune kepith,
And alle the scribes and clercz that to the court longen,
Bothe justice and juges yjoyned and other,
Sergeantz that serven for soulde atte barre,
And the prentys of court, prisist of alle,
Loke ye reeche not of the riche and rewe on the poure 3
That for faute of your fees fallen in thaire pleyntes.
Have pitie on the penylees and thaire pleynte harkeneth,
And hire thaym as hertly as though ye hure had, 4
For the love of Hym that your life weldeth;
And graunteth thaym for Godis sake and with a good chiere
The writing of writtz and the waxe eke;
And thay wil love you for the lawe as liege men aughte,
More thenne for mayntenance that any man useth,
Or for any frounting for faute of the coigne.
Now ye have yherde of the haselle names
Of officiers withynne and withoute eke,
But yit of alle the burnes the beste is behinde
Forto serve a souvrayn in somer and in wintre,
And most nedeful at eve and at morowe eke,
And a profitable page for princes or for ducz
Or for any lay lord, lettrid or elles,
That litel is ytake fourth or his tale lyeved.
And yf ye willeth to wite what the wight hatte, 5
Hit is a Sothesigger that seilde is yseye
To be cherisshid of chief in chambre or in halle,
But for his rathe reasons is rebukid ofte,
And yf he fable to ferre, the foote he goeth undre. 6
There is no clerc with the king that clothid hym ones,
But clothid hym at Cristmasse and al the yere after. 7
"Saunder the serviselees" shuld be his name,
For he abideth in no houshold half a yere to th'ende
But the lord and the lady been loeth of his wordes,
And the meyny and he mowe not accorde,
But al to-teereth his toppe for his trewe tales.
He can not speke in termes ne in tyme nother,
But bablith fourth bustusely as barn un-ylerid; 8
But ever he hitteth on the heed of the nayle-is ende,
That the pure poynt pricketh on the sothe
Til the foule flessh vomy for attre.