“Patience” Poems Of The Pearl Manuscript: Pearl, Cleanness, Patience, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight: Fully Revised Fifth Edition with New Introduction and Incorporating Prose Translation on CD-ROM

主題 Topic Biblical Exemplum, Alliterative Poetry
書刊名 Title“Patience”
Poems Of The Pearl Manuscript: Pearl, Cleanness, Patience, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight: Fully Revised Fifth Edition with New Introduction and Incorporating Prose Translation on CD-ROM
作者 AuthorThe Pearl Poet / Malcolm Andrew and Ronald Waldron  (Editor)
Liverpool University Press
出版年 Year2007
語言 LanguageMiddle English: North-West Midland dialect
裝訂 Binding□ 平裝 Paperback    □ 精裝 Hardcover
頁數 Pages383
(10 / 13)
0859897915/ 978-0859897914
Bibliography Reference  (STC, Duff, GW . . .)
Web Link
撰寫日期 Date2015.08.05

A.   簡介 Introduction (within 100 words, Chinese or English)

《忍耐》(Patience)、《珍珠》(Pearl)、《純潔》(Cleanness)以及《高文爵士與綠騎士》(Sir Gawain and the Green Knight)四首長篇敘述詩收錄在現今僅存的唯一一部手抄卷British Library MS Cotton Nero A. x,根據此四首詩的風格、修辭、方言的特殊用字、頭韻韻格等文學技巧的表現,學者多半認為這四篇詩作應由同一位十四世紀中期的不知名詩人以英格蘭中部西北地區方言寫成,學界稱之為「珍珠詩人」或「高文詩人」。其中《忍耐》一詩屬中世紀文學的「證道故事」(exemplum)文類。《忍耐》講述舊約聖經小先知書第五卷《約拿書》裡關於先知約拿奉神的差遣前往外邦尼尼微宣揚該城毀滅命運之預言。在聖經故事裡,約拿違背神的旨意夜半逃離,因而受到神的懲罰考驗,不但在海上遭逢暴風雨,被船員拋棄茫茫大海中,還被一條大魚給吞噬腹中。約拿在魚腹裡禱告悔過三日終於獲得神的恩典,再度奉神的差遣前往尼尼微。全城的人民因悔過、祈求神的赦免而免於毀滅。相較於聖經故事的版本,「珍珠詩人」筆下的約拿與聖經中約拿先知及耶穌基督前身的形象大相逕庭。待在蓖麻樹下遮蔭等待尼尼微城毀滅未果的約拿憤怒於神的失信。於是,神透過摧毀提供遮蔭的蓖麻樹來訓誡約拿,曉以神的恩典與大愛。約拿面對神差遣其執行任務時表現出的不耐,遭受流離的苦難以及憤怒情緒再再表現出約拿身為「人」之本性。透過約拿對於神的不耐,詩人凸顯神對於人類反叛的無限包容、忍耐與慈愛。

B.   文本摘錄 Extracts (4-6 Pages)

I. Prologue (Lines 1-60)
Pacience is a poynt, þaȝ hit displese ofte,
When heuy herttes ben hurt wyth heþyng oþer elles,
aswagen] MS. aswagend.
Suffraunce may aswagen hem & þe swelme leþe,
but it assuages heavy hearts, and quenches malice.
4For ho quelles vche a qued, & quenches malyce;
For quo-so suffer cowþe syt, sele wolde folȝe,
Happiness follows sorrow.
& quo for þro may noȝt þole, þe þikker he sufferes;
Þen is better to abyde þe bur vmbe-stoundes,
8Þen ay þrow forth my þro, þaȝ me þynk ylle.
I herde on a halyday at a hyȝe masse,
Matthew tells us of the promises made by Christ: Blessed are the poor, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
How mathew melede, þat his mayster his meyny con teche,
Aȝt happes he hem hyȝt & vche on a mede,
12Sunderlupes for hit dissert vpon a ser wyse:
Thay arn happen þat han in hert pouerté,
For hores is þe heuen-ryche to holde for euer;
Blessed are the meek, for they shall “wield the world.”
Þay ar happen also þat haunte mekenesse,
16For þay schal welde þis worlde & alle her wylle haue;
Blessed are the mourners, for they shall be comforted.
Thay ar happen also þat for her harme wepes,
For þay schal comfort encroche in kythes ful mony;
Blessed are the hungry, for they shall be filled.
Þay ar happen also þat hungeres after ryȝt,
20For þay schal frely be refete ful of alle gode;
Blessed are the merciful, for mercy shall be their reward.
Thay ar happen also þat han in hert rauþe,
For mercy in alle maneres her mede schal worþe;
Blessed are the clean of heart, for they shall see the Saviour.
Þay ar happen also þat arn of hert clene,
24For þay her sauyour in sete schal se with her yȝen;
90Blessed are the peace-makers, for they shall be called God’s sons.
Thay ar happen also þat halden her pese,
For þay þe gracious godes sunes schal godly be called;
Blessed are they that live aright, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
Þay ar happen also þat con her hert stere,
28For hores is þe heuen-ryche, as I er sayde.
These blessings are promised to those who follow
These arn þe happes alle aȝt þat vus bihyȝt weren,
If we þyse ladyes wolde lof in lyknyng of þewes;
[Fol. 83b.]poverty, pity, penance, meekness, mercy, chastity, peace and patience, 
Dame pouert, Dame pitee, Dame penaunce þe þrydde,
32Dame Mekenesse, Dame mercy & Miry clannesse,
& þenne Dame pes & pacyence put in þer-after.
He were happen þat hade one, alle were þe better,
syn] MS. fyn.
Bot syn I am put to a poynt þat pouerte hatte,
Poverty and patience are to be treated together.
36I schal me poruay pacyence, & play me with boþe;
For in þe tyxte, þere þyse two arn in teme layde,
They are “fettled in one form,”
Hit arn fettled in on forme, þe forme & þe laste,
& by quest of her quoyntyse enquylen on mede,
and have one meed.
40& als in myn vpynyoun hit arn of on kynde;
Poverty will dwell where she lists,
For þer as pouert hir proferes ho nyl be put vtter,
Bot lenge where-so-euer hir lyst, lyke oþer greme,
& þere as pouert enpresses, þaȝ mon pyne þynk,
mun] mon (?).and man must needs suffer.
44Much maugre his mun, he mot nede suffer,
Poverty and patience are play-fellows.
Thus pouerte & pacyence arn nedes play-feres.
Syþen I am sette with hem samen, suffer me by-houes,
Þenne is me lyȝtloker hit lyke & her lotes prayse,
48Þenne wyþer wyth & be wroth & þe wers haue.
What avails impatience,
Ȝif me be dyȝt a destyné due to haue,
What dowes me þe dedayn, oþer dispit make?
if God send affliction?
Oþer ȝif my lege lorde lyst on lyue me to bidde,
52Oþer to ryde, oþer to renne, to rome in his ernde,
What grayþed me þe grychchyng bot grame more seche?
Much ȝif he me ne made, maugref my chekes,
Patience is best.
& þenne þrat moste I þole, & vnþonk to mede,
56Þe[t] had bowed to his bode, bongre my hyure.
Did not Jonah incur danger by his folly?
Did not Ionas in Iude suche Iape sum-whyle,
To sette hym to sewrte, vnsounde he hym feches?
tyme] MS. tyne.
Wyl ȝe tary a lyttel tyme & tent me a whyle,
60I schal wysse yow þer-wyth as holy wryt telles.

 bi-tydde sum-tyme in þe termes of Iude,
Ionas ioyned watȝ þer-inne ientyle prophete;
God’s word came to him, saying,
Goddes glam to hym glod, þat hym vnglad made,
64With a roghlych rurd rowned in his ere;
“Rise quickly, take the way to Nineveh.
“Rys radly,” he says, “& rayke forth euen,
Nym þe way to nynyue, wyth-outen oþer speche,
[Fol. 84a.]
& in þat cete my saȝes soghe alle aboute,
Say that which I shall put in thine heart.
68Þat, in þat place at þe poynt, I put in þi hert;
For Iwysse hit arn so wykke þat in þat won dowelleȝ,
Wickedness dwells in that city.
& her malys is so much I may not abide,
Bot venge me on her vilanye & venym bilyue;
Go swiftly and carry my message.”
72Now sweȝe me þider swyftly & say me þis arende.”
When þat steuen watȝ stynt, þat stowned his mynde,
Jonah is full of wrath.
Al he wrathed in his wyt & wyþerly he þoȝt,
If I bowe to his bode & bryng hem þis tale,
He is afraid that the shrews
76& I be Nummen in Nuniue, my nyes begynes;
He telles me þose traytoures arn typped schrewes,
I com wyth þose tyþynges, þay ta me bylyue,
will put him in the stocks,
Pyneȝ me in a prysoun, put me in stokkes,
or put out his eyes.
80Wryþe me in a warlok, wrast out myn yȝen.
Þis is a meruayl message a man for to preche,
Amonge enmyes so mony & mansed fendes;
He thinks that God desires his death.
Bot if my gaynlych god such gref to me wolde,
For] MS. fof.
84For desert of sum sake þat I slayn were,
He determines not to go near the city,
At alle peryles, quod þe prophete, I aproche hit no nerre,
I wyl me sum oþer waye, þat he ne wayte after;
but fly to Tarshish.
I schal tee in-to tarce, & tary þere a whyle,
88& lyȝtly, when I am lest, he letes me alone.
Grumbling, he goes to port Joppa.
Þenne he ryses radly, & raykes bilyue
Ionas toward port Iaph, ay Ianglande for tene,
Þat he nolde þole, for no-þyng, non of þose pynes,
He says that God will not be able to protect him.
92Þaȝ þe fader þat hym formed were fale of his hele.
“Oure syre syttes,” he says, “on sege so hyȝe
In his g[l]wande glorye, & gloumbes ful lyttel,…