Parzival, A Knightly Epic

主題 Topic Medieval German romance
書刊名 TitleParzival, A Knightly Epic
作者 AuthorWolfram von Eschenbach; Trans. Jessie Laidlay Weston
出版社 PublisherNew York, G. E. Stechert & co.
出版年 Year1912
語言 LanguageEnglish
裝訂 Binding□ 平裝 Paperback    □ 精裝 Hardcover
頁數 Pages359
(10 / 13)
Bibliography Reference  (STC, Duff, GW . . .)
Web Link
撰寫日期 DateJuly 01, 2016

A.   簡介 Introduction (within 100 words, Chinese or English)

此傳奇由烏法蘭(Wolfram von Eschenbach)於13世紀寫成,描繪帕斯瓦(Parzival)的冒險故事與尋找聖爵之漫長旅程。帕斯瓦是葛穆雷(Gahmuret)和赫茲羅德(Herzeloyde)的遺腹子。葛穆雷年輕時出戰東方,救過貝拿坎尼(Belacane)並按當地規矩娶了她,但卻離開她繼續自己的歷奇。葛穆雷贏了威爾斯的一場比武,按規定必需娶赫茲羅德為妻,儘管他不願背叛貝拿坎尼,仍是成了婚。婚後不久,他聽聞貝拿坎尼有難,前往救援,結果戰死,留下懷有身孕的赫茲羅德。帕斯瓦出生後,赫茲羅德便帶著他退隱森林,不讓兒子當騎士再重蹈丈夫的後塵。由於帕斯瓦與外界隔離,遂變成一個無知又天真的少年。如帕斯瓦遇見三名騎士,誤認他們為天神,連忙跪下。但少年仍繼承父親的特質,一身好武藝,難得的是他更有一顆良善純真的心,更被賦予獨特的責任,在他的問與不問之間,會改變了人的命運。如他未在適當的時機問「為什麼」,以解救漁人王安符塔斯(Amfortas),使他身體復原、進而罪惡得赦、國土重生。本敘事強調傳奇英雄應具備謙卑、同情心、純潔與慈悲。在愛情方面,則是歌頌婚姻中的情愛,而非法國式的宮廷愛情。從修練外在武功到提升心靈修為,本傳奇可說是一個成長故事的寫照。

B.   文本摘錄 Extracts (4-6 Pages)

The Translation
p. 2
In the Introduction the poet tells of the evil of doubt and unsteadfast-
ness—against which he would warn both men and women ; he will tell
them a tale which shall speak of truth and steadfastness, and in which
many strange marvels shall befall.
Book I. tells how Gamuret of Anjon at the death of his father, King
Gandein, refused to become his brother's vassal, and went forth to seek fame
and love-guerdon for himself. How he fought under the Baruch before
Alexandria, and came to Patelamunt. How Queen Belakané was accused
of having caused the death of her lover Eisenhart, and was besieged by
two armies, which Friedebrand, King of Scotland, Eisenhart's uncle, bad
brought against her. How Gamuret defeated her foemen, and married the
Queen, and became King of Assagog and Zassamank. How he grew weary
for lack of knightly deeds, and sailed away in secret from Queen Belakané,
and left her a letter telling of his name and race. How Feirifis was bom,
and how Gamuret came to Seville.
p. 3
IF unfaith in the heart find dwelling, then the soul it shall reap
but woe;
And shaming alike and honour are his who such doubt sha
For it standeth in evil contrast with a true man's dauntless
As one seeth the magpie's plumage, which at one while is black and white.
And yet he may win to blessing ; since I wot well that in his heart,                      5
Hell's darkness, and light of Heaven, alike have their lot and part.
But he who is false and unsteadfast, he is black as the darkest night,
And the soul that hath never wavered stainless its hue and white !
This my parable so fleeting too swift for the dull shall be,
Ere yet they may seize its meaning from before their face 'twill flee,                   10
As a hare that a sound hath startled : yea, metal behind the glass,
And a blind man's dream yield visions that as swift from the eye do pass,
For naught shall they have that endureth ! And at one while 'tis bright and
And know of a truth that its glory but for short space shall make ye glad.
And what man shall think to grip me, where no hair for his grasp shall grow,             15
In the palm of mine hand ? The mystery of a close clasp he sure doth
If I cry aloud in such peril, it 'seemeth my wisdom well.
Shall I look for truth where it fleeteth? In the fire that the stream doth
Or the dew that the sun doth banish ? Ne'er knew I a man so wise.
But was fain to learn the wisdom my fable doth ill disguise,                          20
p. 4
And the teaching that springeth from it : for so shall he ne'er delay
To fly and to chase as shall fit him, to shun and to seek alway,
And to give fitting blame and honour. He who knoweth the twain to tell.
In their changing ways, then wisdom has tutored that man right well
And he sits not o'er-long at leisure, nor his goal doth he overreach,                    25
But in wisdom his ways discerning, he dealeth with all and each.
But his comrade, of heart unfaithful, in hell-fire shall his portion be,
Yea, a hailstorm that dims the glory of a knightly fame is he.
As a short tail it is, his honour, that but for two bites holds good,
When the steer by the gad-fly driven doth roam thro' the lonely wood.                  30
And tho' manifold be my counsel not to men alone I 'Id speak.
For fain would I show to women the goal that their heart should seek.
And they who shall mark my counsel, they shall learn where they may
Their praise and their maiden honour ; and the manner of man shall know
Whom they freely may love and honour, and never may fear to rue                    35
Their maidenhood, and the true love they gave him of heart so true.
In God's sight I pray all good women to keep them in wisdom's way,
For true shame on all sides doth guard them : such bliss I for them would
But the false heart shall win false honour — How long doth the thin ice last,
If the sun shineth hot as in August ? So their praise shall be soon o'erpast.               40
Many women are praised for beauty ; if at heart they shall be untrue,
Then I praise them as I would praise it, the glass of a sapphire hue
That in gold shall be set as a jewel ! Tho' I hold it an evil thing,
If a man take a costly ruby, with the virtue the stone doth bring,
And set it in worthless setting : I would liken such costly stone                       45
To the heart of a faithful woman, who true womanhood doth own.
I would look not upon her colour, nor the heart's roof all men can see,
If the heart beateth true beneath it, true praise shall she win from me !
Should I speak of both man and woman as I know, nor my skill should
O'er-long would it be my story. List ye now to my wonder-tale :                       50
And this venture it telleth tidings of love, and anon of woe,
Joy and sorrow it bringeth with it.  'Stead of one man if three ye know,
p. 5
And each one of the three hath wisdom and skill that outweigh my skill,
Yet o'erstrange shall they find the labour, tho' they toil with a right good-
To tell ye this tale, which I think me to tell ye myself, alone,                         55
And worn with their task and weary would they be ere the work was done.
A tale I anew will tell ye, that speaks of a mighty love ;
Of the womanhood of true women ; how a man did his manhood prove ;
Of one that endured all hardness, whose heart never failed in fight,
Steel he in the face of conflict : with victorious hand of might                        60
Did he win him fair meed of honour ; a brave man yet slowly wise
Is he whom I hail my hero !  The delight he of woman's eyes,
Yet of woman's heart the sorrow !  'Gainst ail evil his face he set ;
Yet he whom I thus have chosen my song knoweth not as yet,
For not yet is he born of whom men this wondrous tale shall tell,                      65
And many and great the marvels that unto this knight befell.
NOW they do to-day as of old time, where a foreign law holds sway
(Yea, in part of our German kingdom, as ye oft shall have heard men
Whoever might rule that country, 'twas the law, and none thought it shame
('Tis the truth and no lie I tell ye) that the elder son might claim                       70
The whole of his father's heirdom — And the younger sons must grieve,
What was theirs in their father's lifetime, they perforce at his death must
Before, all was theirs in common, now it fell unto one alone.
So a wise man planned in his wisdom, that the eldest the lands should own,
For youth it hath many a fair gift, but old age knoweth grief and pain,                  75
And he who is poor in his old age an ill harvest alone doth gain.
Kings, Counts, Dukes (and no lie I tell ye) the law holdeth all as one,
And no man of them all may inherit, save only the eldest son,
And methinks 'tis an evil custom— So the knight in his youthful pride,
Gamuret, the gallant hero, lost his Burg, and his fair lands wide,                      80
Where his father had ruled with sceptre and crown as a mighty king,
Till knighthood, and lust of battle, to his death did the monarch bring.
And all men were sore for his sorrow, who truth and unbroken faith
Bare ever throughout his lifetime, yea even unto his death.
p. 6
Then the elder son he summoned the princes from out his land,                       85
And knightly they came, who rightly might claim from their monarch's hand,
To hold, as of yore, their fiefdoms. So came they unto his hall.
And the claim of each man he hearkened, and gave fiefs unto each and all.
Now hear how they dealt — As their true heart it bade them, both great and
They made to their king petition, with one voice from the people all,                   90
That to Gamuret grace and favour he would show with true brother's hand,
And honour himself in the doing. That he drive him not from the land
But give him, within his kingdom, a fair Burg that all men might see,
That he take from that Burg his title, and be held of all tribute free ! —
Nor the king was ill-pleased at their pleading, and he quoth, 'A small grace,             95
I trow,
Have ye asked, I would e'en be better than your prayer, as ye straight shall
Why name ye not this my brother as Gamuret Angevin ?
Since Anjou is my land, I think me the title we both may win !.'
Then further he spake, the monarch, ' My brother in sooth may seek                  100
Yet more from my hand of favour than my mouth may as swiftly speak,
With me shall he have his dwelling— I would that ye all should see
How one mother alike hath borne us ; his riches but small shall be,
While I have enough ; of free hand would I give him both lands and gold,
That my bliss may be ne'er held forfeit by Him, Who can aye withhold,
Or give, as He deemeth rightful ! ' W Then the princes they heard alway,               105
How the king would deal well with his brother, and they deemed it a joyful
day !
And each one bowed him low before him. Nor Gamuret long delayed,
But he spake as his heart would bid him, and friendly the words he said :
' Now hearken, my lord and brother, if vassal I think to be
To thee, or to any other, then a fair lot awaiteth me.                                110
But. think thou upon mine honour, for faithful art thou and wise,
And give counsel as shall beseem thee, and help as thou shalt devise.
For naught have I now save mine armour, if within it I more had done,
Then far lands should speak my praises, and remembrance from men were
won ! '