Mikrokosmographia: A Description of the Body of Man 《人體微觀論》

主題 Topic Human Anatomy
書刊名 TitleMikrokosmographia: A Description of the Body of Man
作者 AuthorHelkiah Crooke
出版社 PublisherPrinted by William Iaggard dwelling in Barbican, and are there to be sold,1615.
出版年 Year1615
語言 LanguageOriginal: Italian (Translated into English by Julia Conaway Bondanella and Peter Bondanella)
裝訂 Binding■平裝 Paperback    □ 精裝 Hardcover
頁數 Pages514
(10 / 13)
Bibliography ReferenceSTC (2nd ed.) / 6062. (STC, Duff, GW . . .)
Web Link
撰寫日期 Date7 Nov. 2016

A.   簡介 Introduction (within 100 words, Chinese or English) 

  本書作者海克亞‧克魯克(Helkiah Crooke)為英格蘭國王詹姆斯一世時的宮廷御醫,對於生理學,其研究具有極大的貢獻。文藝復興時期的醫學,多是傳承於古希臘名醫學家蓋倫(Galen)與亞里斯多德(Aristotle)。克魯克亦受兩位影響,但不同的是他提出新的觀點,且挑戰了古典對於「人」的價值之既有且亙古的觀念。在基督教,原有的醫學系統也被克魯克所質疑,進而推翻。另外,由於本書富含許多人體器官構造的圖示,也被教會視為不潔(indecent)而禁止。無論此書受到多大的爭議,克魯克在醫學上的貢獻,是不容小覷的。

B.   文本摘錄 Extracts (4-6 Pages)

The first Chapter. The Excellency of Man is declared by his parts, Namely, the minde and the bodie, and first what is the dignity of the Soule.
IN the inauguration or Coronation of a Prince, there is nothing more stately or magnificent, then to haue his stile rehearsed by men of greatest Nobility, euery one adding somewhat thereto, till the whole number of his Seigniories and Honors are heaped vpon him: if therefore, wee list to search what and how magnificent haue been the acclamations of all ages, we shall finde in the Records of Antiquity, that man in whom the sparkes of heauenly fire, & seeds of the diuine Nature are, (as appeareth both by the Maiestie imprinted * in his face, and by the frame of his body, which was made vpright and looking toward heauen) was of the wise and prudent Priests of the Egyptians, styled a reuerend & admirable creature. That thrice-worthy Mercury cals him a great Myracle, a Creature like the Creator, the Ambassador of the Gods. Pythagoras, the Measure of all things. Plato, the wonder of Wonders. Theophrastus, the patterne of the whole vniuerse. Aristotle, A politicke creature framed for society. Synesius, the Horizon of Corporeal and Incorporeall things. Tully, a Diuine creature, full of reason and iudgement. Pliny the worlds Epitome, and Natures Darling. Finally, all men with one consent, call him , or, The little world. For his body is, at it were, a Magazine or Store-house of all the vertues and efficacies of all bodies, and in his soule is the power and force of all liuing and sensible things. That ancient Zoroaster, hauing long admired the singular workeman shippe shining in the frame of man, at length cried out. O Man, the glory of Nature, euen in her cheefest ruffe and pride, and her Maister peece, when she durst contend with heauen it selfe. Abdolas the Barbarian, beeing asked what hee thought was the most admirable thing in Nature, is reported to haue answered not Barbarously, but wisely; That it is onely Man who far surpasseth all admiration, for that beeing the Image and resemblance of the whole world, he can suddenly (Proteus-like) transform himselfe into any particular thing. Fauorinus did acknowledge nothing great vpon earth, but Man.
The Diuines call him Omnem Creaturam, euery Creature, because he is in power (in a manner) All things; not for matter and substance, as Empedocleswould haue it, but Analo∣gically by participation or reception of the seuerall species or kinds of thinges. Others, call him, the Royall Temple and Image of God. For as in Coin the picture of Caesar, so in Man the image of God is apparantly discerned. Others cal him, the End of all things (which in Nature is the first cause,) to whom all sublunarie created Bodies and Spirites are obedient, yet he himselfe subiect vnto none, vnlesse peraduenture one man come vnder the lee and subiection of another. The Kingly Prophet Dauid, ful of heauenly inspiration, desciphereth the dignity of man on this manner; Thou hast made him little lower then the Angels, thou hast*crowned him with glory and honor, and giuen him dominion ouer the workes of thy hands.
These are excellent, that I may not say diuine commendations, which man hath, partly * from his soule, the most excellent of all formes, partly from his body, which is as it were the measure and exemplary patterne of all corporeall things. The soule indeede is so diuine, that raising and mounting it selfe sometimes aboue all naturall formes, it comprehendeth by an admirable, absolutely-free, and imcompulsiue power, all incorporeall things seuered and diuided from all matter and substance. This Soule, if it could bee discerned with the eye, or but conceyued by the minde, how would it rauish vs and leade vs into an * excessiue loue of it selfe? Onely this is created, not generated; and albeit (as the Philosophers speake) there be a subiect supponed in her production, yet it is not produced out of the power of that supponed matter, but rather absolueth and perfecteth the same.
This onely is indiuisible, for all other Naturall formes receiue augmentation, diminution and diuision, together with their subiects; but the Soule of man Is wholly in the whole,*and wholly in euery particular part. This onely is immateriall, heerein alone participating with the Matter, that it is capeable of all species or kindes, euen as the first Matter admitteth all impressions and formes; and yet the manner of reception is not alike in them both. For that first matter receiueth but particular and indiuiduall formes, and that without vnderstanding: in the Soule are imprinted the vniuersall formes of things, and it hath also vnderstanding to iudge of them.
The matter admitteth those particular formes materially, and withall obli erateth or * blotteth out the contrary forme whereof it was before possessed: the soule of man receiues and entertaines the generall and vniuersall notions of things, free from all contagion or touch of Matter, not abolishing the contrary, or diuers formes whereof before it was possessed. This alone is incorporeall, immortall, or immutable. This may be called the receptacle, promptuary, or store-house of all the species or kinds of things. *
Aristotle in his third Booke De Anima, calleth it After a manner all things, Because (saith he) In an Organe of sence, the sensible species or Images of things are blotted out, and as it vvere drowned, but the Soule retaineth them. The Platonists do range it in the midst, as hauing God aboue it, & the Intelligences or Angels: below it, all bodies and all qualities that so it might be partaker of them both. According to Diuines, it approacheth very neere to the Nature of Angels, by reason of her vnderstanding or intellectuall power, of her originall, eternity, image, apprehension and beatitude.
To conclude, there is in the soule of Man something Metaphysicall, transcendent aboue Nature, vnknowne to the ancient Philosophers, who groaped but in the darke, and were inwrapped in a mystie or clowdy veile of ignorance; and is reuealed onely to Christians, to whom the light of the Gospell hath shined. For in it is a liuely resemblance of the ineffable Trinity, represented by the three principall faculties, Memorie, Vnderstanding, and Will. But stay: Why should I presume to describe the essence of the Soule, seeing it partaketh of so much Diuinity? for of diuine things Symonides hath sayde well, We can onely say what they are not, not what they are. Why should I paine my selfe to open that shrine which Nature her selfe hath veyled and sealed vp from our sences, least it should bee prophaned therewith?
Hence it is, that Hipocrates calleth it, The inaspectible or inuisible Nature, which can no more be described by vs, then our eye is able to see it selfe. These thinges * therefore belong to a higher contemplation, and require a more skilfull Workman to draw but the lines, or euen to shadow them out. Let vs content our selues to handle that that may be handled, or at least is subiect vnto some of our sences, and so proceede to the other part of Man, namely, the Bodie, which more truely and properlie is the subiect of our Discourse.