Emaré selected in The Middle English Breton Lays

主題 Topic Romance, marriage, incest, endurance, travel incognito
書刊名 TitleEmaré selected in The Middle English Breton Lays
作者 AuthorAnne Laskaya and Eve Salisbury (eds.)
出版社 PublisherTEAMS Middle English Texts: Medieval Institute Publications
出版年 Year1995
語言 LanguageEnglish
裝訂 Binding□ 平裝 Paperback    □ 精裝 Hardcover
頁數 Pages456
(10 / 13)
Bibliography Reference  (STC, Duff, GW . . .)
Web Link
撰寫日期 Date2016. 08.30

A.   簡介 Introduction (within 100 words, Chinese or English)

    流傳於英國十四世紀末至十五世紀初的敘述詩《艾瑪芮》(Emaré)是一首1035行的英語短歌(Breton lay),以英格蘭東北部(又稱東英吉利亞Northeast or East Anglia)方言寫成。詩體本身押尾韻(tail rhyme),每十二行一個段落,共計86個段落。由於此詩常出現重複詩行,搭配其尾韻,使得詩作能被朗朗上口。學者推測本詩廣為傳唱於市井之間。
    本詩源於12世紀起廣受歡迎之「康士坦絲故事群」(Constance-saga)傳統。不同於中世紀傳奇文學中常見的英雄冒險故事,「康士坦絲故事群」(Constance-saga)講述女主角遭受威脅陷害孤身飄零大海時,如何堅毅不拔,歷險歸來的冒險故事。十四世紀時期,此類故事更成為英國詩人不時重述的題材,如崔維特(Nicholas Trivet)的《盎格魯・諾曼編年史》(Anglo-Norman Chronicle)(c.1335)、喬叟(Geoffrey Chaucer)的《律師的故事》(The Man of Law’s Tale)(c.1385-92)以及高爾(John Gower)的《愛人的告解》(Confessio Amantis)(c.1392)均分別重述康士坦絲的故事內容。《艾瑪芮》此詩特別的是女主角艾瑪芮所受之威脅居然一開始是來自其父親欲強娶其為妻這樣亂倫的故事基調(the motif of incest);此故事基調在喬叟的作品中被刪除,卻在高爾的作品中保留下來,也引起許多學者討論。此外,詩中亦出現許多中世紀英國文學傳統裡常見的元素,例如艾瑪芮身穿的色彩斑斕貴重的華服、狸貓換太子情節、造謠、惡魔之子、邪惡婆婆與婆媳問題等故事題材。這些豐富的文學元素使得「康士坦絲故事群」傳統蔚為風行,如本詩《艾瑪芮》雖為白丁輕易朗朗上口的市井短歌,也能被神職人員詮釋成如基督信仰中聖徒神聖的例證(exemplum)而廣為流傳至今。  

B.   文本摘錄 Extracts (4-6 Pages)

Lines 1-12
Jhesu, that ys kyng in trone,   
As Thou shoope bothe sonne and mone,   
   And all that shalle dele and dyghte,
Now lene us grace such dedus to done,   
In Thy blys that we may wone -
   Men calle hyt heven lyghte;
And Thy modur Mary, hevyn qwene,   
Bere our arunde so bytwene, 1
   That semely ys of syght,   
To thy Sone that ys so fre,
In heven wyth Hym that we may be,
   That lord ys most of myght.
Lines 13-24
Menstrelles that walken fer and wyde,
Her and ther in every a syde,
   In mony a dyverse londe,
Sholde, at her bygynnyng,   
Speke of that ryghtwes kyng
   That made both see and sonde.
Whoso wyll a stounde dwelle, 2
Of mykyll myrght y may you telle,
   And mornyng ther amonge;   
Of a lady fayr and fre,
Her name was called Emaré,   
   As I here synge in songe.   
Lines 25-36
Her fadyr was an emperour
Of castell and of ryche towre;
   Syr Artyus was hys nome.
He hadde bothe hallys and bowrys,
Frythes fayr, forestes wyth flowrys;
   So gret a lord was none.
Weddedde he had a lady
That was both fayr and semely,
   Whyte as whales bone:
Dame Erayne hette that emperes;
She was full of love and goodnesse;
   So curtays lady was none.
Lines 37-48
Syr Artyus was the best manne
In the worlde that lyvede thanne,
   Both hardy and therto wyght;
He was curtays in all thyng,
Bothe to olde and to yynge,
   And well kowth dele and dyght. 3
He hadde but on chyld in hys lyve
Begeten on hys weddedde wyfe,
   And that was fayr and bryght;
For sothe, as y may telle the,
They called that chyld Emaré,
   That semely was of syght.
Lines 49-60
When she was of her modur born,
She was the fayrest creature borne
   That yn the lond was thoo.
The emperes, that fayr ladye,   
Fro her lord gan she dye,
   Or hyt kowthe speke or goo.   
The chyld, that was fayr and gent,
To a lady was hyt sente,   
   That men kalled Abro.
She thawghth hyt curtesye and thewe,
Golde and sylke for to sewe,
   Amonge maydenes moo.
Lines 61-72
Abro tawghte thys mayden small,
Nortur that men useden in sale,
   Whyle she was in her bowre.
She was curtays in all thynge,
Bothe to olde and to yynge,
   And whyte as lylye-flowre.   
Of her hondes she was slye;
All her loved that her sye,   
   Wyth menske and mychyl honour.
At the mayden leve we,   
And at the lady fayr and fre,   
   And speke we of the Emperour.
Lines 73-84
The Emperour of gentyll blode
Was a curteys lorde and a gode,
   In all maner of thynge.
Aftur, when hys wyf was dede,
And ledde hys lyf yn weddewede,   
   And myche loved playnge.   
Sone aftur, yn a whyle,
The ryche Kynge of Cesyle
   To the Emperour gan wende;
A ryche present wyth hym he browght,
A cloth that was wordylye wroght.   
   He wellcomed hym as the hende.
Lines 85-96
Syr Tergaunte, that nobyll knyght,   
He presented the Emperour ryght,
   And sette hym on hys kne,
Wyth that cloth rychyly dyght,
Full of stones ther hyt was pyght,
   As thykke as hyt myght be:
Off topaze and rubyes   
And othur stones of myche prys,
   That semely wer to se;
Of crapowtes and nakette,   
As thykke ar they sette,
   For sothe, as y say the.
Lines 97-108
The cloth was dysplayed sone;
The Emperour lokede therupone
   And myght hyt not se,
For glysteryng of the ryche ston;
Redy syght had he non,
   And sayde, "How may thys be?"
The Emperour sayde on hygh,
"Sertes, thys ys a fayry,   
   Or ellys a vanyté!"
The Kyng of Cysyle answered than,
"So ryche a jwell ys ther non
   In all Crystyanté."
Lines 109-120
The Emerayle dowghter of hethenes   
Made thys cloth wythouten lees,
   And wrowghte hyt all wyth pryde;   
And purtreyed hyt wyth gret honour,
Wyth ryche golde and asowr   
   And stones on ylke a syde.
And, as the story telles in honde,
The stones that yn thys cloth stonde,
   Sowghte they wer full wyde.
Seven wynter hyt was yn makynge,
Or hyt was browght to endynge,
   In herte ys not to hyde.