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Core Text

Introduction to Texts
Poster:Post date:2016-06-09
 
台灣西洋古典、中世紀暨文藝復興學會
Taiwan Association of Classical, Medieval, and Renaissance Studies
核心文本
Core Text
 
主題 Topic 十八世紀初英國戲劇
書刊名 Title The Revolution of Sweden
作者 Author Catherine Trotter (1674-1747)
出版社 Publisher
 
Uppsala UP, Sweden
 
出版年 Year 2012.
語言 Language English
裝訂 Binding þ 平裝 Paperback    □ 精裝 Hardcover
頁數 Pages 143
ISBN (10 / 13) 9155482600 / 9789155482602
Bibliography Reference
(STC, Duff, GW . . .)
來源網址Web Link http://ppt.cc/YlBj
劇本簡介撰稿者 王儀君
撰寫日期 Date July 2014
A.   簡介 Introduction (within 100 words, Chinese or English)
《瑞典的革命》劇本為凱薩琳.欻特 (Catharine Trotter or Catherine Trotter Cockburn, 1674? – 1749)所著,並以國家主體、疆界及國族共同體為主題,1706年在女王劇院(Queen’s Theatre)演出。劇本的歷史背景是1521年,瑞典反抗卡爾馬暴君及丹麥統治者,也就是卡爾馬聯盟共主的克里斯蒂安二世。劇本開始之前,瑞典當時王室貴族小史坦.史都爾(Sten Svantesson, or Sten Sture the Younger, 1493-1520)業已陣亡,丹麥的克里斯蒂安二世帶領大軍,駛入瑞典稱王,並且進行屠殺。劇本的主角則包括年輕的瑞典貴族古斯塔夫·瓦薩(Gustavus Vasa or Gustav Vasa, 1496-1560)、亞舀伯爵(Count Arwide)和他的夫人,此外還有上尉艾瑞希(Erici),援助瓦薩的克里絲提娜(Christina),以及一些無姓無名的平民百姓;劇本的反派角色,除有克里斯蒂安二世之外,還有瑞典主教,古斯塔夫.蒫利(Gustav Trolle, 1488-1535),以及主教的心腹,也是克里絲提娜夫婿的貝戎。
蒫利主教在歷史上是個有具爭議性的人物,雖然他主張和平主義,也關懷及保護教區,卻提倡與丹麥聯盟,與小史坦.史都爾互為競爭對手,也是瑞典獨立的一大阻力 (McKenna 182)。強調自由精神的劇作家欻特在呈現克里斯蒂安二世,為了區域性「叛亂」,進攻瑞典之時,同時將主教塑造成反派角色,並且凸顯他的私心和重利心態,不過劇本並未冠上他的姓氏。藉由主教的心態,劇作家也暴露在最後一波革命之前,小史坦.史都爾的事蹟,和上一世代瑞典人為爭取獨立所做的努力。原來,早在十五世紀,老史坦.史都爾(Sten Sture the Elder, 1440-1503)就曾為脫離卡爾馬聯盟和丹麥發生衝突。根據歷史,卡爾馬聯盟在克里斯蒂安一世(Christian)的時代,已經有了新的修訂,其條約認定卡爾馬聯盟共主的事實,卻也允許聯盟成員保有若干主權(Peterson 18)。但丹麥養兵的龐大賦稅來自於聯盟國家,瑞典平民負擔過重,老史坦.史都爾帶領瑞典民眾抗爭。他的軍隊來自民間,大都是非軍事訓練的瑞典農夫、礦工、小本經營的商人;他們以傳統方式劫掠、突擊,不僅挑戰了丹麥的威權,也對瑞典沿海幾百年來日耳曼人的殖民者產生不小的震撼(Peterson 30)。十五世紀末,為鞏固威權,丹麥的國王,也是卡爾馬聯盟共主的漢斯國王(King Hans, 1455-1513)連合日耳曼軍隊,更不惜與伊凡沙皇結盟,在1493年,調度海軍,大舉殲滅老史都爾的草莽軍隊。卡爾馬聯盟恢復舊制,並且強迫瑞典承認此一凌駕在國家之上的聯盟體制(Peterson 20)。老史坦.史都爾當然不予承認;值得注意的是,瑞典的君主制度在中世紀即由選舉產生,稱為選舉君主制(elective monarchy),雖然有時君王不盡理想,也不至於踐踏百姓(Scott 117)。卡爾馬聯盟帶來不少困擾,但瑞典的連續抗爭並未改變當時的體制,因此,小史坦.史都爾即位時,卡爾馬聯盟的共主已是克里斯蒂安二世。克里斯蒂安二世對瑞典本有戒心,他的高壓不但未能解決上一個世代就已存在的紛爭,反而成為封建制度殘留的體制之下的另一禍害。不僅既有的行政高官持續利用土地獲得暴利,卡爾馬聯盟制度之下的稅收提高,羅馬又在瑞典的莪普薩拉(Upsala,現代拼法為Uppsala)成立教區,向教區民眾徵稅,民眾痛苦攀升,新的反對勢力崛起。最受民眾矚目的就是前面所提到,貴為王室成員的小史坦.史都爾、他的丹麥籍妻子克里斯蒂娜.蓋倫思鐵娜(LadyChristina Gyllenstierna, 1495-1559)(1)、古斯塔夫·瓦薩,和熱情保衛家園的百姓。瑞典歷史上最令人髮指就是這次在1520年戰後,由克里斯蒂安二世所主導的血洗斯德哥爾摩事件(Stockholm Bloodbath)。一般歐洲的戰役,投降的城市能免除進一步的傷害。然而戰爭結束,身為瑞典國王及共主的克里斯蒂安二世完成加冕之後,不僅未能遵守克里斯蒂娜所提出維持境內和平的訴求,反而近百位充滿國族意識的瑞典領導階級居然遭到集體屠殺(Griffiths 157-8)。當然,血洗事件終導致最後革命的成功。《瑞典的革命》劇本所描繪的正是血洗事件之後的政治樣貌,民眾對統治者沒有信心,戰爭後的重建更加困難。劇本中令人感動的是,各類參與革命的成員,甚至名不見經傳的角色,也能顯示對暴力的反感和瑞典政治前途的焦慮,甚至流露參與獨立運動的決心。安德森(Benedict Anderson)認為,國族主義建構於想像的共同體(imagined community),因為社會、文化和共有的經驗,塑造了共通的國族意識(79)。從劇本角色對政治主體的反思和集體意識來看,劇作家欻特呈現了瑞典革命軍對家國的想像,和共同型塑國家疆界,爭取獨立的過程。
 
 
註解
 
 
1  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christina_Gyllenstierna
 
 
 
*本篇簡介出自論文〈移動的疆界:凱薩琳.欻特劇本中瑞典革命之城市、國家主體與疆界〉一部分,將由國立中山大學人文中心出版。
 
 
B.   文本摘錄 Extracts (4-6 Pages)
Const. The Sacred Pow'r forbid 
That my poor Country be for my Redemption, 
Depriv'd of the least Aid against our Tyrants. 
Oh rather let me fall a Sacrifice 
To their Inhuman Vengeance! 
Arch. To our Justice, 
For 'tis of Right to punish lawless Rebels 
In their Alliance and curst Progeny. 
But Interest of State, may bate of right, 
And grant your Life to awe a powerful Rebel. 
Const. Wisely that branded Name has been apply'd, 
For a pretence to such Barbarities, 
As else must ahve bare Fac'd confess'd themselves, 
In their most horrid Form. 
Is it Rebellion for a wretched People 
Oppress'd and Ruin'd, by that Power they gave 
For their Defence, the safety of their Rights, 
To seek Redress? When Kings who are in Trust 
The Guardians of the Laws, the publick Peace and Welfare, 
Confess no Law but Arbitrary Will, 
Or know no use of Pow'r but to Oppress, 
And Injure, with Impunity, themselves 
Disown their Office, tacitly acquit 
The People, of whose due Obedience, just 
Protection, is the Natural and Essential Condition. 
Arch. Excellent Maxims, to perpetuate Confusion! 
Pernicious Principles! Which ev'n those 
Whose turn they serve against the Reigning PRince, 
Gladly disclaim when their own Pow'rs establish'd, 
Then wou'd they be obey'd as Heav'ns Viceregents, 
Accountable to none but him they represent. 
Const. Wou'd Princes govern as if they themselves 
Believ'd they were accountable to Heav'n, 
There had been no occasion to contest 
Whether their Pow'r be of Divine, or Humane 
Institution; But when such impious Cruelties 
Are practis'd, as our Sweden long has been 
The Scene of (under this too justly stil'd 
The Northern Nero) strong necessity, 
Becomes the Peoples Casuist, proves that Piety 
And Justice must allow that self-defence, to which 
Nature so universally incites. 
Arch. Nature indeed, for Mutiny, a Love 
Of Novelty, and Spirit of Rebellion, 
Are Nature in the giddy Multitude; 
Humour and headstrong their Will their Casuist, 
Unknowing of that specious Sophistry, 
With which their Factious Leaders gild their Cause. 
Not the Kings Cruelty, but too Imprudent 
Partial Clemency, gave Rise to this Revolt; 
Had he not spar'd the Sons of those his Justice doom'd, 
Had Young Gustavus, when his Pris'ner, shar'd 
His Father's Fate, the King had Reign'd securely, 
And Sweden been in Peace. 
Const. Most true, My Lord, 
The Tyrant shou'd have spar'd no generous Swede, 
Whom breach of publick Faith, the Law of Nations, 
And Murther of so many Innocents, 
Cou'd prompt; or to Redress, or to Avenge 
Their Countries Wrongs.-----But can you thus insulting, 
Or without Terror, name those noble Victims 
Whose Blood still cries out for Vengeance! They, My Lord, 
Were sure no Rebels, relying on the Faith 
Of Treaties; Solemn Oaths, and the smooth Face of Peace, 
Secure they went as to a Friendly Feast, 
The Band of Union; but with barbarous Treachery, 
Themselves were made th'inhumane Banquet, 
To glut the Luxury of sanctify'd Revenge, 
And Cruelty. 
Arch. No, Rebels! Dare you vindicate those Wretches 
Accurst, with sacred, solemn Excommunication. 
Was not the Cause of Piety concern'd, 
The Int'rest of our Holy FAith engag'd, 
T'expel such Poys'nous Vipers from the Earth? 
Const. The Cause of Piety! Can that Religion 
Of which the Spirit, and distinctive Character 
Is Mercy; forgiving Injuries and Universal Love, 
Can it e'er authorize Revenge? Icite 
To Persecution, and Bloody Massacres? 
Well may Infidels be scandaliz'd 
At our most Holy Faith, when its Professors 
Themselves impute to it the most unnatural 
Impieties? Well may Religions sacred Name 
Be fall'n to Contempt, when thus abus'd, 
To serve the vilest, the most impious Ends! 
Arch. Is it for you 
To judge of your Superiors, t'instruct your Guide? 
When Women preach, 'twill be with Luther's Aid; 
A blessed Reformation. 
Const. Not to instruct, my Lord, but to awake; 
You've shut your Eyes against our present Miseries 
And future Dangers, else wou'd you not oppose 
Your Countries Liberty, or give pretext 
To Luther's growing Schism, which (with its fatal 
Consequences) will all be set to the Account 
Of those Ambitious Church-Men, who've turn'd 
The Spiritual Pow'r, to Secular Tyrannical 
Dominion, and giv'n Libertines occasion 
In detecting the Usurp'd, to throw off 
Undistinguish'd, the just Authority. 
Arch. Insolent Assertions! 
Such are th'Insinuations which support 
Your Party-----But we shall quell these impious 
Reformers-----Beron, lead on your Pris'ner, 
We shall try if Sweden's great Deliverer 
Can save himself. 
    
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