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[Introduction to Texts] The true travels, adventures, and observations of Captaine Iohn Smith

Introduction to Texts
Poster:Post date:2015-06-09
 
台灣西洋古典、中世紀暨文藝復興學會
Taiwan Association of Classical, Medieval, and Renaissance Studies
文本簡介
Introduction to Texts Before 1800
 
主題 Topic 約翰・史密斯
書刊名 Title The true travels, adventures, and observations of Captaine Iohn Smith
作者 Author Smith, John
出版社Publisher London :Printed by I[ohn] H[aviland] for Thomas Slater
出版年 Year 1630
語言Language English
裝訂Binding ■平裝 Paperback    □ 精裝 Hardcover
頁數 Pages 40
ISBN (10 / 13)
 
Bibliography Reference
(STC, Duff, GW . . .)
來源網址Web Link
/full_rec?SOURCE=pgimages.cfg&ACTION=ByID&ID=V12189
Excerpts-from-Capt.-Smith-about-Pocahontas.pdf
撰稿者Writer
王儀君
撰寫日期Date
2016/ 11/ 11
A.   簡介 Introduction (within 100 words, Chinese or English)
John Smith (1580-1630)是英國至美洲最知名的早期殖民者之一,他的故事出現在華德狄斯奈的卡通影片《寶嘉康蒂》(Pocahontas)和許多文學作品之中。雖然,卡通影片和實際的歷史有相當大的差距,我們卻可以從John Smith的文字中了解當時英國殖民者的生活經驗和論述。Smith的自述和1617年致安娜女王的信中,敘述自己被Powhantan酋長手下逮捕,後來卻受到禮遇的過程。文字敘述包括本來Smith要被處以棍擊頭的酷刑,但公主Pocahontas護著Smith的頭部,向父親求情。後來Smith被關在森林的小屋內,極具威嚴的酋長造訪數次,Smith驚恐萬分,但之後酋長卻送他去Jamestown,並視他如子的一段經歷。給王后信中則提到王子Nantaquaus是位英勇的戰士,年僅十二、三歲的Pocahontas極具同情心,在Smith生命未能確保之時,挺身搭救。誠如Smith所言,當時的殖民者資源甚少,如果不是這些原住民部族提供食物,殖民者根本無法存活。信中Smith告知,他難以想像,Pocahontas居然不懼在夜晚穿越樹林予以照顧。她的寬容不僅讓SmithJamestown殖民者度過飢寒的日子,她的同情心更帶給殖民者生存的勇氣和智慧
B.   文本摘錄 Extracts (4-6 Pages)
At last they brought him to Meronocomoco, where was Powhatan, their emperor. Here more than two hundred of those grim courtiers stood wondering at him, as he had been a monster; till Powhatan and his train had put themselves in their greatest braveries. Before a fire upon a seat like a bedstead, he sat covered with a great robe, made of raccoon skins, and all the tails hanging by. On either hand did a sit a young wench of sixteen or eighteen years, and along on each side the house, two rows of men, and behind them as many women, with all their heads bedecked with the white down of birds, but everyone with something; and a great chain of white beads about their necks.
 
At his entrance before the King, all the people gave a great shout. The Queen of Appamatuck was appointed to bring him water to wash his hands, and another brought him a bunch of feathers, instead of a towel, to dry them. Having feasted him after their best barbarous manner they could, a long consultation was held, but the conclusion was, two great stones were brought before Powhatan: then as many as could laid hands on him, dragged him to them, and thereon laid his head, and being ready with their clubs to beat out his brains, Pocahontas, the King's dearest daughter, when no entreaty could prevail, got his head in her arms, and laid her own upon his to save him from death: whereat the Emperor was contented he should live to make him hatchets, and her bells, beads, and copper; for they thought him as well of all occupations as themselves. For the King himself will make his own robes, shoes, bows, arrows, pots; plant, hunt, or do anything so well as the rest. Two days after, Powhatan having disguised himself in the most fearfulest manner he could, caused Captain Smith to be brought forth to a great house in the woods, and there upon a mat by the fire to be left alone. Not long after, from behind a mat that divided the house, was made the most dolefulest noise he ever heard; then Powhatan, more like a devil than a man, came unto him and told him now they were friends, and presently he should go to Jamestown, to send him two great guns and a grindstone, for which he would give him the country of Capahowosick, and forever esteem him as his son Nantaquoud.
 
So to Jamestown with twelve guides Powhatan sent him. That night they quartered in the woods, he still expecting (as he had done all this long time of his imprisonment) every hour to be put to one death or other, for all their feasting. But almighty God (by his divine providence) had mollified the hearts of those stern barbarians with compassion. The next morning betimes they came to the fort, where Smith having used the savages with what kindness he could, he showed Rawhunt, Powhatan's trusty servant, two demiculverins and a millstone to carry to Powhatan: they found them somewhat too heavy; but when they did see him discharge them, being loaded with stones, among the boughs of a great tree loaded with icicles, the ice and branches came so tumbling down that the poor savages ran away half dead with fear. But at last we regained some conference with them, and gave them some toys, and sent to Powhatan, his women, and children such presents, as gave them in general full content.
 
Now in Jamestown they were all in combustion, the strongest preparing once more to run away with the pinnace; which with the hazard of his life, with saker falcon and musket shot, Smith forced now the third time to stay or sink.
 
Some no better than they should be, had plotted with the President, the next day to have put him to death by the Levitical law, for the lives of Robinson and Emry, pretending the fault was his that had led them to their ends: but he quickly took such order with such lawyers that he laid them by the heels till he sent some of them prisoners for England.
 
Now every once in four or five days, Pocahontas, with her attendants, brought him so much provision that saved many of their lives that else for all this had starved with hunger.
 
His relation of the plenty he had seen, especially at Werawocomoco, and of the state and bounty of Powhatan (which till that time was unknown), so revived their dead spirits (especially the love of Pocahontas) as all men's fear was abandoned.
 
Thus you may see what difficulties still crossed any good endeavor; and the good success of the business being thus oft brought to the very period of destruction; yet you see by what strange means God hath delivered it.their necks. At his entrance before the King, all the people gave a great shout. The Queene of Appamatuck was appointed to bring him water to wash his hands, and another brought him a bunch of feathers, in stead of a Towell to dry them: having feasted him after their best barbarous manner they could, a long consultation was held, but the conclusion was, two great stones were brought before Powhatan: then as many as could layd hands on him, dragged him to them, and thereon laid his head, and being ready with their clubs, to beate out his braines, Pocahontas the Kings dearest daughter, when no intreaty could prevaile, got his head in her armes, and laid her owne upon his to save him from death: whereat the Emperour was contented he should live to make him hatchets, and her bells, beads, and copper; for they thought him as well of all occupations as themselves.
 
See also Smith’s letter to Queen Ann:
 
Excerpt from letter to Queen Anne - 1617
To the most high and virtuous princess, Queen Anne of Great Britain
Most admired Queen,
The love I bear my God, my King and country, hath so oft emboldened me in the worst of extreme dangers, that now honesty doth constrain me to presume thus far beyond myself, to present your Majesty this short discourse: if ingratitude be a deadly poison to all honest virtues, I must be guilty of that crime if I should omit any means to be thankful. So it is, that some ten years ago being in Virginia, and taken prisoner by the power of Powhatan their chief King, I received from this great Salvage exceeding great courtesy, especially from his son Nantaquaus, the most manliest, comeliest, boldest spirit, I ever saw in a Salvage, and his sister
Pocahontas, the Kings most dear and well-beloved daughter, being but a child of twelve or thirteen years of age, whose compassionate pitiful heart, of my desperate estate, gave me much cause to respect her: I being the first Christian this proud King and his grim attendants ever saw: and thus enthralled in their barbarous power, I cannot say I felt the least occasion of want that was in the power of those my mortal foes to prevent, notwithstanding all their threats. After some six weeks fatting amongst those Salvage courtiers, at the minute of my execution, she hazarded the beating out of her own brains to save mine; and not only that, but so prevailed with her father, that I was safely conducted to
Jamestown: where I found about eight and thirty miserable poor and sick creatures, to keep possession of all those large territories of Virginia; such was the weakness of this poor commonwealth, as had the salvages not fed us, we directly had starved. And this relief, most gracious Queen, was commonly
brought us by this Lady Pocahontas. Notwithstanding all these passages, when inconstant fortune turned our peace to war, this tender virgin would still not spare to dare to visit us, and by her our jars have been oft appeased, and our wants still
supplied; were it the policy of her father thus to employ her, or the ordinance of God thus to make her his instrument, or her extraordinary affection to our nation, I know not: but of this I am sure; when her father with the utmost of his policy and power, sought to surprise me, having but eighteen with me, the dark night could not affright her from coming through the irksome woods, and with watered eyes gave me intelligence, with her best advice to escape his fury; which had he known, he had surely slain her. Jamestown with her wild train she as freely frequented, as her fathers habitation; and during the time of two or three years, she next under God, was still the instrument to preserve this colony from death,
famine and utter confusion; which if in those times, had once been dissolved, Virginia might have lain as it was at our first arrival to this day. Since then, this business having been turned and varied by many accidents from that I left it at: it is most certain, after a long and troublesome war after my departure, betwixt her father and our colony; all which time she was not heard of. About two years after she herself was taken prisoner, being so detained near two years longer, the
colony by that means was relieved, peace concluded; and at last rejecting her barbarous condition, she was married to an English Gentleman, with whom at this present she is in England; the first Christian ever of that Nation, the first Virginian ever spoke English, or had a child in marriage by an Englishman: a
matter surely, if my meaning be truly considered and well understood, worthy a Princes understanding. 
 
Last modification time:2020-06-23 PM 4:03

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