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Research Resources

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《文本簡介》Asia in the Making of Europe Volume III Book Three

Introduction to Texts
Poster:Post date:2015-09-10
  台灣西洋古典、中世紀暨文藝復興學會
Taiwan Association of Classical, Medieval, and Renaissance Studies
文本簡介
Introduction to Texts before 1800
 
主題 Topic
世紀發展:東南亞
A Century of Advance: Southeast Asia
書刊名 Title
《由亞洲建構歐洲》第三卷第三冊
Asia in the Making of Europe Volume III Book Three
作者 Author Donald F. Lach
出版社 Publisher The University of Chicago Press
出版年 Year 1993
語言 Language 英文 English
裝訂 Binding □ 平裝 Paperback    ■ 精裝 Hardcover
頁數 Pages 564 pages
ISBN (10 / 13) ISBN-10: 0226-46753-8
Bibliography Reference
(STC, Duff, GW . . .)
來源網址 Web Link  
撰稿者 Writer 李祁芳、林柏豪
撰寫日期 Date 7 Sept. 2015
A. 簡介 Introduction (within 100 words, Chinese or English)
此書為《由亞洲建構歐洲》第三冊第二卷之延續。上卷內容提及到歐洲人的亞洲意象,也對南亞有許多的著墨。第三卷內容將擴大至東南亞,範圍從東邊的群島至西邊的亞洲大陸,皆有更細微的介紹。此書大致分為六個部分,首先深入亞洲東南方,包含了馬來亞(Malaya,今馬來西亞一領地)、勃固(Pegu,今緬甸境內)、若開(Arakan,今緬甸境內)、柬埔寨及寮國。第二部分重心轉移至暹羅(Siam,今泰國舊稱),講述了當時暹羅的社會制度、文化發展、更重要的是紀錄了現今廣為影響世人的佛教在當時的影響。除了暹羅,越南為第三部分之重點,越南受法國影響,其章節為越南的首次發現、當地信仰與基督信仰交流…等。前三部分為亞洲大陸的介紹,第四部份起,重點從大陸轉至海上的群島,分別為爪哇、峇里、蘇門答臘、婆羅洲。島嶼地理環境、社會文化、經濟政治皆紀錄在此章節。第五部份為太平洋上的列嶼,範圍更達澳大利亞及紐西蘭。最後一部份,重心又回到了亞洲大陸沿岸的菲律賓及馬里亞納群島。菲律賓較早受西班牙的殖民影響,且在地理大發現時代,麥哲倫探險隊便已到過此地,菲律賓與其他地區比較,受到西方影響的程度較深。此章節除了說明當地信仰如何與外來基督宗教相互影響,也記錄這些地區的地理、人文、自然、經濟等等。
 
B. 文本摘錄 Extracts (4-6 Pages)
Bali
The published reports from the first Dutch voyage to Southeast Asia also contained some of the earliest European references to Bali and the first continuous description of that island in any language. Indeed these proved to be the most comprehensive notices about Bali written during the seventeen century.
  The Verhael vande reyse’s report (1598) is brief: Bali is fruitful, although it produces no spices; Balinese dress like Javans and use the same weapons, especially krises and blowguns; they are enemies of both of Muslims and the Portuguese; and the king of Bali keeps a more magnificent court than the king of Bantam. Accroding to the Verhael vande reyse the king rides in a wagon drawn by two white buffaloes and his guards carry spears with golden points. The Balinese are “heathen,” having no common religion. Some worship a cow, some the sun; each worships his own god. Balinese women, the Verhael vande reyse reports, practice suttee. They would be judged dishonest if they refused it.
  Lodewyckszoon’s description of Bali, also published in 1598, is the most detailed notice to appear. It locates Bali off Java’s east coast, its northern point at 8.5˚ south latitude. According to Lodewyckszoon, Bali is twelve German miles in circumference, its north coast is very mountainous, and on its south coast a long, high point extends far out into the sea. Bali’s population is very large-he estimates it at six hundred-a result, he speculates, of polygamy. In fact, he notes, the Balinese sell many of their people as slaves. Curiously, he describes them as black with curly hair. They dress, however, like the people on Jva and other neighboring islands. The Balinese are heathen, according to Lodewyckszoon, by which he probably means nothing more than that they are not Muslims. Regarding the content of Balinese religion Lodewyckszoon reports only that they worship whatever they first meet in the morning. He also describe suttee, which he thinks is widely practiced on Bali. While the Dutch lay off the coast they hear about fifty wives of a great noble who are to be burned alive on their husband’s funeral pyre. None of the Dutch, Lodewyckszoon reports, were inclined to watch the spectacle. Lodewyckszoon thinks suttee is a moral obligation for Balinese women and that they believe it enables them to accompany their husbands to the next world. Although he mentions that Indians also practice suttee, he seems nor to understand it as a religious act and he does not relate Bali’s religion to India. He instead repeats the standard European story about the suttee’s origin: that it was instituted by a king to keep unfaithful wives from poisoning their husbands.
  Lodewyckszoon was most impressed by Bali’s fruitfulness. The Balinese raise an “overflowing” abundance rice, but the king forbids to export. He uses it to feed Bali’s large population and to fill “forts” in the mountains where surplus rice is stored against bad harvests or foreign invasion of the rice-growing lowlands. Bali also produces an abundance of coconuts (from which the inhabitants make oil), oranges, lemon, limes-in fact, all the fruits grow on Java. Lodewyckszoon especially mentions “a fruit the size of a pear covered with a thin shell shaped like a chestnut” (the salak) and “a fruit that grows under the ground, the size of walnut… which they also use much in their food” (groundnut or peanuts). No spices grown on Bali except ginger and some drugs which are also plentiful on Java and other islands of the archipelago.
  The seas around Bali teem with fish, and fishing is one of the inhabitants’ major occupations. The Balinese raise chickens, ducks, partridges, peacocks, and turtledoves as well as a variety of animals: oxen, water buffaloes, goats, pigs, and a very large number of small horses. Few of the horses are exported. They are used by the ordinary people for transportation. The great nobles are carried by their slaves in sedan chairs or ride in the existence of iron, copper, and gold on Bali. The king forbids the mining of gold. The Dutch who visited the Balinese king’s courts, however, report seeing many golden drinking vessels; they are more numerous and more costly than any seen in any Javanese court including Bantam.
  In addition to farming and fishing, the Balinese produce large amounts of cloth, woven from the cotton which grows on the island. Lodewyckszoon thinks it is a major export to Java, carried in small proas, the Balinese engage in little or no overseas trade. Ships from elsewhere, from Bantam, Ambonia, Makassar, Timor, and Solor, however, regularly stop a Bali for food and water, and to buy cloth, cattle, and slaves. The Chinese, too, occasionally trade in Bali. They exchange porcelain and swords for cotton cloth. But Chinese strings of cash are not accepted as currency on Bali as they are in Java and Sumatra, although the Balinese use the larger Chinese coins. Chinese influence on Bali appears to be much less than in other parts of archipelago.
  Balinese soldiers use krises, spears, swords, and shields like those of the Javans, but their favorite weapon is the blowgun. The small, thin darts of blowgun have poisoned points which always break off in the victim’s body causing great pain and very frequently death.
  Bali’s king is absolute. He holds court in lavish pomp and splendor; even his greatest nobles dare speak to him on with folded hands. Day-to-day government appears to be in the hands of a governor called the “Quillor” (Ki Lurah), whom Lodewyckszoon compares to the great chancellor of Poland. Under him are many other nobles, each of whom governs this district in the name of the King. Lodewyckszoon reports an abortive conspiracy against the king about ten or twelve years earlier. The rebels, attempting to assassinate the king in his palace, were all quickly arrested and condemned to death. The king, however, mercifully changed the sentence and banished them to a small island southeast of Bali called “Pulo Rossa” (Malay, Pulau Rusa; Deer Island; Balinese, Nusa Penida). There they still live, quiet prosperously, still subjects to the king, but not permitted to return to Bali. The King of Bali comes down to meet the Dutch ship, riding in an elaborate carriage drawn by two white buffaloes and guarded by soldiers with gold-pointed spears. The king thought they had been here before, because, Lodewyckszoon concludes, Francis Drake had visited the island.
  Several copperplates accompany Lodewyckszoon’s text: one of a Balinese noble being carried in a sedan chair, one of a noble riding in a buffalo-drawn carriage, a map of the island, and a suttee. All are products of the engraver’s imagination; the picture of the suttee was taken from Linschoten. Lodewyckszoon’s description of Bali, including the copperplate engravings is also included in the Begin ende voortgangh account of De Houtmans voyage.
  During the remainder of the seventeenth century, Bali receives only short notice and from but relatively few European writers. Pyrard, for example, includes two pages about Bali which are almost identical in content with the notice found in theVerhael vande reyse. The insert in Gerret Vermeulen’s De gedenkwaerdige voyagie(1677) probably has the same origin or is culled from Lodewyckszoon’s report. Vermeulen, a soldier in the VOC campaign against Makassar, visited the coast of Bali in 1667 or 1668. When the Dutch landed, looking for fresh water, local authorities told them they might bit come ashore carrying weapons. The Dutch retreated to their ship but returned that night with more guards. A battle ensued. One VOC soldier was killed. Next morning, the Dutch who returned to retrieve his body carried guns. They met Balinese soldiers in battle formation, but no shots were fired. Later the Dutch bought many pigs from Balinese. Vermeulen also relates a story about European who plotted against the king of Bali and who was cut into little pieces for trouble.
  Finally Frick, in 1692, includes a brief notice about Bali. In addition to what by then had become standard information, Frick observes that Balinese sold themselves as slaves; he bought a young girl. He also contends that the Balinese did not marry but held women in common. Still he mentions suttee-claims to have witnessed one-which would seem to imply marriage.
  The first Dutch visitors found the island and its people very pleasant, abundantly supplied with all things necessary for good living. Lodewyckszoon reports that they named Bali “New Holland.” Two Dutch sailors jumped ship and remained here when the Dutch sailed away. Still Bali did not fall under VOC control during seventeen century, probably because it produced no spices, had no seaport on its north coast, and had maintained its independence from Mataram. The Dutch built a lodging on the island in 1620, but was destroyed during the following year. The VOC sent an embassy to Bali in 1633 attempting to enlist the king’s aid against Mataram. Justus Heurnius, the missionary, was involved with the embassy and later wrote a report to the governor-general about the situation in Bali. No published description resulted from it, however, VOC embassies were sent in subsequent years, as well, and some contracts were negotiated with the king of Bali for the purchase of slaves. Bali did not become a Dutch possession, however, until 1841, long after the demise of the VOC. Europe’s image of Bali during the seventeen century, therefore, was formed almost entirely by Lodewyckszoon’s report which, while it introduce European readers to the island, mentioned few of the Balinese cultural characteristics which nineteen-century Europeans found so intriguing. It says very little about Balinese religion, for example, nothing about Bali’s temples and art, nothing about its music, dance, and theater, nothing about its language and literature, and nothing about Bali’s complex social structure and caste system.

  
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