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《文本簡介》Asia in the Making of Europe Volume III Book Two

Introduction to Texts
Poster:Post date:2015-09-07
  台灣西洋古典、中世紀暨文藝復興學會
Taiwan Association of Classical, Medieval, and Renaissance Studies
文本簡介
Introduction to Texts before 1800
 
主題 Topic
世紀發展:貿易、傳教、文獻紀錄
A Century of Advance: South Asia
書刊名 Title
《由亞洲建構歐洲》第三冊第二卷
Asia in the Making of Europe Volume III Book Two
作者 Author Donald F. Lach
出版社 Publisher The University of Chicago Press
出版年 Year 1993
語言 Language 英文 English
裝訂 Binding □ 平裝 Paperback    ■ 精裝 Hardcover
頁數 Pages 564 pages
ISBN (10 / 13) ISBN-10: 0226-46753-8
Bibliography Reference
(STC, Duff, GW . . .)
來源網址 Web Link  
撰稿者 Writer 李祁芳、林柏豪
撰寫日期 Date 3 Sept. 20015
A. 簡介 Introduction (within 100 words, Chinese or English)
在十六及十七世紀地理大發現的年代,歐洲人的亞洲意象隨著旅遊變得更加鮮明,紀錄也更為豐富。葡萄牙人承接上世紀對於印度的紀載,又再次深入了解這塊大陸,許多資料在十六世紀又有重新的認識,例如由耶穌會傳教士所記錄當時的印度教、印度北方的統治者是另一世界強權蒙兀兒帝國、耶穌會使徒進入西藏並通往中國陸路,從中紀錄認識論上的亞洲。葡萄牙與荷蘭也分別在印度南方建立自己在亞洲的政治、宗教、貿易中心,以做為西方至東方的重要樞紐。在印度半島上活躍的歐洲人,也見證了印度歷史上維查耶納伽爾王朝(Vijayanagar Empire)的滅亡。歐洲人的腳步在十六及十七世紀遍及南亞各地,記錄當時南亞各地的風土民情及政治發展。藉由荷蘭人的記錄,歐洲人得以了解印度尼西亞;有了法國人的描述、歐洲人更加認識越南;因為西班牙人的殖民記事,歐洲人可知悉菲律賓和馬里亞納群島的一切。而對於中國的記載,多歸功於耶穌會的內陸深入,得以描繪當時中國的風俗民情。耶穌會甚至翻譯了儒家孔子的思想哲理,幫助歐人了解中國文明的發展及思想脈絡。1640年,日本實行鎖國政策,歐洲列強唯有荷蘭獲准與之進行貿易交流。其所紀載的文獻對於「歐洲人的亞洲」研究實為珍貴。然而,儘管歐洲人的足跡已踏遍東亞及南亞,亦處東方的澳大利亞卻仍為「空虛的大陸」(the empty continent ),在十六十七世紀的紀錄,依然屈指可數。
 
本書研究發人深省! 內容除了在引領讀者認識歐洲人在各方面如何處理亞洲(東亞、南亞、東南亞、中亞、大洋洲等多面向的新大陸現象)的文化知識外,更在二十一世紀刺激身在亞洲的吾人思考何謂歐洲?何謂亞洲人的歐洲? ?亞洲的知識份子人如何理解、解讀歐洲?我們對歐洲的認識是否能比十六、十七的歐洲人來的有系統、更深入?我們對於歐洲的態度是否只能兩極化地做膚淺的文化崇拜或是做無意義的帝國殖民批判?我們是否有資本、決心與處理多元歷史文化之能力,客觀地建構歐洲,並消化歐洲龐大之文化知識?以上問題是本學會會員長期關注之焦點,希望能拋磚引玉,歡迎國內學者一同加入探討。
 
 
B. 文本摘錄 Extracts (4-6 Pages)
The Mughul Court to 1618
Two great Jesuit compilations of the early-seventeenth century focused Europe’s attention upon the Mughul Empire and its court. Fernão Guerreiro’s Relaçam annual, a compendium and summary in Portuguese of Jesuit contemporary reports on the Eastern mission for the years 1600 to 1608, was published in five volumes (or parts) between 1603 and 1611. Much more widely circulated, probably because it was written in French and in a livelier style, was the retrospective magnum opusof Pierre Du Jarric called Histoire des choses plus memorable advenues tant ez Indes Orientales (3vol.[parts], Bordeaux, 1068, 1610, 1614). Most of the materials on norther India in these two compilations have appeared in modern English translations and have been incorporated into recent special and general studies. Consequently, in what follows, we shall cite wherever possible the translations and summaries rather than original rditions of Guerreiro and Du Jarric.
  At the beginning of the seventeen century Akbar is pictured as being master of most Hindustan between the Indus and the Ganges and as determined to extend his authority southward over the Deccan states, Goa, Malabar, and Vijayanagar. After an initial setback, he takes over control of Ahmadnagar and “Breampur” (Burhanpur). On his approach to Burhanpur its “Miram” ( Miran, or Bahadur Khan of Khandesh) abandons the city and flees to the nearby fortress of “Syr” (Asigarh), his chief stronghold. Unable to take by siege or assault this virtually impregnable mountain fortress, Akbar requests Father Jerome Xavier and Brother Bento Goes “who were in his camp” to write to the Portuguese at Chaul asking for artillery and munitions. When they refuse this appeal as requiring an action contrary to their Christian faith, the Jesuit temporarily fall out of favor. Akbar then “bombards” the fortress with gold and silver to corrupt and undermine its defenders. In January, 1601, Asirgarh finally falls to Akbar and as a result he controls both Khandesh and Ahmadnagar.
  Before leaving the Deccan, Akbar receives Father Manuel “Pignero”(Pinheiro) at the camp. The Jesuit came from his post in Lahore to complain about the ill treatment he and his converts were experiencing there. Among the many gifts the Jesuit bring to Akbar there is a picture of “our lady of Lorete, painted an gilded calaim.” In the meantime, Akbar determines to send an embassy to Goa, which he orders Brother Goes to accompany. The emperor’s letter of accreditation requests a political alliance, the dispatch of skilled craftsmen, and facilities for the acquisition of precious stones and other rare objects. Because he always has conquest of the Estado da la India in view, the emperor frequently sends his agents to Goa when the ships from Europe arrive to determine the military strength of the Portuguese and to find out what new and exotic merchandise is available. This embassy reaches Goa in May, 1601, where its Gujarati ambassador and his retinue are received “with great magnificence” and treated significantly to “a terrific salute of artillery.” While in Goa, Foes receives orders from his superiors to undertake an overland journey to Cathy (China).
  Unsatisfactory conditions in his own realm brought on by the misconduct of Prince Salim forces Akbar to return to Agra in May before completing the conquest of Deccan. Leaving certain of his captains behind to carry on the war against Bijapur, the “Great Mogul” retires to Agra accompanied by Xavier and Pinheiro “Who usually traveled in his suite.” In the following year (1062) he Jesuit are joined in Agra by Goes and Father Antonio Machado (1561-1627), a Portuguese Jesuit. The four Jesuits again complain to Akbar about the mistreatment of the Christians in Lahore and request from him farman granting a general permission to his subjects to become Christians. While the ruler had previously granted liberty of worship orally, the Jesuit want a new royal command in writing to let all his subjects know that they are free to become Christians “without any person being able to hinder to them.” The Muslim officers at the court, especially “Agiscoa” (Aziz Koka) the first minister, and at Lahore try to obstruct the issuance of these letters patent as being prejudicial and offensive to their faith and its believers. Akbar nonetheless insists on their proclamation in 1602. With Akbar’s permission Pinheiro then leaves for Lahore to rejoin Francisco Corsi (1573-1635) who had been carrying on the mission there alone. And with Akbar’s financial and moral support Brother Goes sets off at the beginning of 1603 in his memorable overland journey that will take him from Lahore to Su-chou in northwestern China.
  Throughout most of 1602 Akbar continues to have serious problems with Prince Salim, his impatient heir apparent. While Akbar was busy in the Deccan, Slim had begun “to assume the name and to exercise the prerogative of a king.” On the sovereign’s return to Argra, Salim repeatedly refuses his father’s summons to appear at court and instead raise a large army to support his rebellion. While civil war appear to be in the offing, the father and son are finally reconciled peacefully “though they continued to live apart, and to hold separate courts.” At his courts in “Alahabech” (Allahabad) Salim favors the Jesuits and their converts continue to be persecuted at Lahore, and even in Agra, by officials bold enough to defy the imperial edict granting freedom to the Christians. While Akbar lies dying in October, 1605, a minor succession crisis ensues, from which Salim emerges the victor. On his promising to defend Islam the court nobility and “groups of the common people” uphold Salim’s right to succeed his father.

  
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