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《文本簡介》“The Statutes of the Realm (1235-1377)”, selected in Middle English Literature: A Historical Sourcebook, pp.215-222

Introduction to Texts
Poster:Post date:2016-11-12
  台灣西洋古典、中世紀暨文藝復興學會
Taiwan Association of Classical, Medieval, and Renaissance Studies
文本簡介
Introduction to Texts Before 1800
 
主題 Topic Charters and articles of incorporation, sumptuary law
書刊名 Title “The Statutes of the Realm (1235-1377)”, selected in Middle English Literature: A Historical Sourcebook, pp.215-222
作者 Author Matthew Boyd Goldie (ed.)
出版社 Publisher Oxford: Blackwell
出版年 Year 2003
語言 Language 英文
裝訂 Binding □ 平裝 Paperback    □ 精裝 Hardcover
頁數 Pages 340
ISBN (10 / 13) 978-0631231486
Bibliography Reference
(STC, Duff, GW . . .)
撰稿者 Writer 王明月、蔡幸紋
撰寫日期 Date 2016.08.15
A. 簡介 Introduction (within 100 words, Chinese or English)
  本文為中世紀英國法律條文,紀錄十三世紀中期至十四世紀中期年間的「地方法令」。其中以1363年英王愛德華三世統治時期英國首次頒布的「禁奢法令」(sumptuary law)最為有趣。1361-1362年間,第二波大規模瘟疫(黑死病)肆虐整個英倫大島,奪去無數人畜性命,造成人口銳減和社會秩序動盪。原本嚴謹分明的社會階層因此而鬆動了。「禁奢法令」即在這樣的歷史背景下頒布執行,目的為規範各社會階層(貴族、勞動階級以及神職人員)回到原先嚴謹的階級次序。衣著與衣物飾品成了標記階級最明顯的記號。「禁奢法令」嚴格規範社會各階層的人們服裝衣著必須合乎該階層的社會期待標準,例如屬於勞動階級的工匠或者傳令官(yeoman)以及其妻兒「不得穿戴衣著布料等值超過四十先令的服飾」,亦不得配戴珠寶、金銀飾、絲綢以及毛皮。這個禁奢法令到了十五世紀時期由原先規範身份物件範疇逐漸延伸變成規範道德之準則。如十五世紀由威廉卡克斯頓(William Caxton)翻譯與印刷之道德教育指引《蘭德里塔騎士之書》The Book of the Knight of the Tower,以及道德規勸文本《富人與窮人》Dives and Pauper皆提及如何規範婦女衣著合宜,切勿身穿光鮮亮麗衣著和其他婦人鬥艷,以避免犯了基督宗教七宗罪「傲慢」或「淫欲」之罪。
   相較於中世紀英國文學傳統敘事詩形式,法律條文也能夠讓讀者一窺中世紀英國時期實際的社會活動,深入了解當時衣著布料、樣式、珠寶等流行文化以及貨幣匯率為何,可清楚明白英國中世紀晚期的人文歷史與社會風貌。
 
B. 文本摘錄 Extracts (4-6 Pages)
Original text source: The Statutes of the Realm, vol. 1 (1810). London: Eyre and Strahan. 37 Edward 3, stat. 10, cc. 1–6, 380–2.

(Goldie, 216-222)
Item: for the outrageous and excessive apparel of diverse people against their estate and degree, to the great destruction and impoverishment of all the land, it is ordained that grooms, servants of lords, as well as those of mysteries and artificers, shall be served to eat and drink once a day of flesh or of fish, and the remnant of other victuals, as of milk, butter, and cheese, and other such victuals, according to their estate; and that they have clothes for their vesture, or hosing, whereof the whole cloth shall not exceed two marks, and that they wear no cloth of higher price of their buying nor otherwise, nor anything of gold nor of silver embroidered, enameled, nor of silk, nor anything pertaining to the said things; and their wives, daughters, and children of the same condition in their clothing and apparel, and they shall wear no veils passing twelve pence a veil.
Item: that people of handicraft and yeomen shall neither take nor wear cloth of a higher price for their vesture or hosing than within forty shillings the whole cloth by way of buying nor otherwise, nor stone, nor cloth of silk nor of silver, nor girdle, knife, button, ring, garter, nor ouche, ribbon, chain, nor any such other things of gold or of silver, nor any manner of apparel embroidered, enameled, nor of silk in any way; and that their wives, daughters, and children be of the same condition in their vesture and apparel, and that they wear no veil of silk but only of yarn made within the realm, nor any manner of fur nor of budge but only lamb, coney, cat, and fox.
Item: that esquires and all manner of gentlemen under the estate of a knight who have not land or rent to the value of one hundred pounds a year shall not take nor wear cloth for their clothing or hose of a higher price than within the price of four and a half marks the whole cloth, by way of buying or otherwise, and that they wear no cloth of gold, nor silk, nor silver, nor any manner of clothing embroidered, ring, buttons, nor ouche of gold, ribbon, girdle, nor any other apparel, nor harness of gold nor of silver, nor anything of stone, nor any manner of fur; and that their wives, daughters, and children be of the same condition as to their vesture and apparel, with- out any turning up or purple; and that they wear no manner of apparel of gold, nor silver, nor of stone. But that esquires who have land or rent to the value of two hundred marks a year and above may take and wear cloths of the price of five marks the whole cloth, and cloth of silk and of silver, ribbon, girdle, and other apparel reasonably garnished of silver; and that their wives, daughters, and children may wear fur turned up of miniver, without ermine or lettice,2 or any manner of stone but for their heads.
Item: that merchants, citizens, and burgesses, artificers, people of handicraft, as well within the city of London as elsewhere, who have clearly goods and chattels to the value of five hundred pounds, and their wives and children, may take and wear in the same manner as the esquires and gentlemen who have land and rent to the value of one hundred pounds a year; and that the same merchants, citizens, and burgesses, who have clearly goods and chattels to the value of one thousand pounds, and their wives and children, may take and wear in the same manner as esquires and gentlemen who have land and rent to the value of two hundred pounds a year; and no groom, yeoman, or servant of merchant, artificer, or handicraftmen shall wear otherwise in apparel than is above-ordained of yeomen of lords.
Item: that knights, who have land or rent within the value of two hundred pounds shall take and wear cloth of six marks the whole cloth for their vesture and of no higher price; and that they wear neither cloth of gold nor cloaks, mantle, nor gown furred with miniver nor of ermins, nor any apparel embroidered with stone, nor otherwise; and that their wives, daughters, and children be of the same condition, and that they wear no turning up of ermins, nor of lettices, nor any manner of stone but only for their heads; but that all knights and ladies, who have land or rent over the value of four hundred marks a year to the sum of one thousand pounds, shall wear at their pleasure, except ermins and lettices, and apparel of pearls and stone, but only for their heads.
Item: that clerks who have a degree in any church, cathedral, college, or schools, or clerk of the king, that have such estate that requires fur, shall do and use according to the constitution of the same, and all other clerks, who have two hundred marks of land per year, shall wear and do as knights of the same rent; and other clerks within the same rent shall wear as the esquires of one hundred pounds of rent; and that all those, knights as well as clerks, who by this ordinance may wear fur in winter in the same manner shall wear linure in the summer.
Item: that carters, ploughmen, drivers of the plough, oxherds, cowherds, shepherds, swineherds, dairymen, and all other keepers of beasts, threshers of corn, and all manner of people of the estate of a groom attending to husbandry and other people that have not forty shillings of goods nor of chattels, shall not take nor wear any manner of cloth but blanket and russet, of wool, worth not more than twelve pence, and shall wear girdles of linen according to their estate; and that they come to eat and drink in the same manner that pertains to them and not excessively. And it is ordained that if any wear or do contrary to any of the points aforesaid, that he shall forfeit to the king all the apparel that he has so worn against the form of this ordinance.
Item: to the intent that this ordinance for the taking and wearing of cloths be maintained and kept in all points without blemish, it is ordained that all the makers of cloths within the realm, men as well as women, shall conform them to make their cloths according to the price limited by this ordinance, and that all the drapers shall buy and purvey their items according to the same price so that so great plenty of such cloths be made and set to sale in every city, borough, and merchant town, and elsewhere in the realm, that for default of such cloths the said ordinance be in no point broken; and to that shall the said clothmakers and drapers be constrained by any manner or way that seems best to the king and his council. And this ordinance of new apparel shall begin at Candlemas next coming.
    
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